• Curr Opin Crit Care · Feb 2022

    Review

    Phenotyping in acute respiratory distress syndrome: state of the art and clinical implications.

    • Narges Alipanah and Carolyn S Calfee.
    • Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine.
    • Curr Opin Crit Care. 2022 Feb 1; 28 (1): 1-8.

    Purpose Of ReviewDecades of research in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have led to few interventions that impact clinical outcomes. The pandemic of patients with ARDS due to the novel SARS-CoV-2 infection has stressed the need for more effective therapies in ARDS. Phenotyping may enable successful trials and precision therapeutics in this patient population.Recent FindingsClinical phenotypes that group patients by shared cause, time-course or radiographic presentation are of prognostic value, but their use is limited by misclassification. Physiological phenotypes, including the P/F ratio, ventilatory ratio and dead space fraction, predict poor outcomes but can rapidly change, making them unstable over time. Biologic phenotypes have prognostic value with composite clinical and biomarker sub-phenotypes additionally impacting treatment response but are yet to be prospectively validated.SummaryAlthough much progress has been made in ARDS phenotyping, implementation of precision medicine practices will depend on conducting phenotype-aware trials using rapid point of care assays or machine learning algorithms. Omics studies will enhance our understanding of biologic determinants of clinical outcomes in ARDS sub-phenotypes. Whether biologic ARDS sub-phenotypes are specific to this syndrome or rather more broadly identify endotypes of critical illness remains to be determined.Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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