• Presse Med · Dec 2022

    " Type 2 Diabetes: Contemporary Challenges " Clinical Pharmacology of Antidiabetic Drugs: what can be expected of their use?

    • André J Scheen.
    • Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research on Medicines (CIRM), University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; Division of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders, Department of Medicine, CHU Liège, Liège, Belgium. Electronic address: andre.scheen@chuliege.be.
    • Presse Med. 2022 Dec 22; 52 (1): 104158104158.

    AbstractThe pharmacotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has markedly evolved in the last two decades. Classical antidiabetic agents (sulphonylureas, metformin, insulin) are now in competition with new glucose-lowering medications. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and thiazolidinediones (glitazones) were not able to replace older agents, because of insufficient efficacy and/or poor tolerability/safety. In contrast, incretin-based therapies, both dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is or gliptins, oral agents) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs, subcutaneous injections) are a major breakthrough in the management of T2DM. Because they are not associated with hypoglycaemia and weight gain, DPP-4is tend to replace sulphonylureas as add-on to metformin while GLP-1RAs tend to replace basal insulin therapy after failure of oral therapies. Furthermore, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcome trials demonstrated neutrality for DPP-4is, but cardiovascular protection for GLP-1RAs in patients with T2DM at high cardiovascular risk. More recently sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is or gliflozins, oral agents) also showed cardiovascular protection, especially a reduction in hospitalization for heart failure, as well as a renal protection in patients with and without T2DM, at high cardiovascular risk, with established heart failure and/or with chronic kidney disease. Thus, GLP-1RAs and SGLT2is are now considered as preferred drugs in T2DM patients with or at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease whereas SGLT2is are more specifically recommended in patients with or at risk of heart failure and renal (albuminuric) disease. The management of T2DM is moving from a glucocentric approach to a broader strategy focusing on all risk factors, including overweight/obesity, and to an organ-disease targeted personalized approach.Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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