Randomized Controlled Trial
- S Prakash, R Tyagi, A R Gogia, and R Singh.
- Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjang Hospital New Delhi, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
- Br J Anaesth. 2006 Sep 1;97(3):385-8.
BackgroundThis study was designed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of three doses of tramadol, administered caudally with bupivacaine, in providing postoperative pain relief in children.MethodsEighty children, aged between 2 and 8 yr, undergoing inguinal herniotomy were randomly allocated to receive bupivacaine 0.25% 0.75 ml kg(-1) (Group B; n=20), bupivacaine 0.25% 0.75 ml kg(-1) with tramadol 1 mg kg(-1) (Group BT1; n=20), bupivacaine 0.25% 0.75 ml kg(-1) with tramadol 1.5 mg kg(-1) (Group BT1.5; n=20), or bupivacaine 0.25% 0.75 ml kg(-1) with tramadol 2 mg kg(-1) (Group BT2; n=20) by the caudal route immediately after induction of general anaesthesia. Heart rate, arterial pressure and oxygen saturation were monitored. Postoperative pain was assessed at regular intervals for 24 h using All India Institute of Medical Sciences pain score. Analgesia was supplemented whenever pain score was >or=4. Duration of analgesia and requirement for additional analgesics was noted.ResultsDuration of analgesia was longer in Group BT2 [(mean (SD) 12 (0.9) h] compared with Group B [4 (1) h], Group BT1 [8 (0.9) h], or Group BT1.5 [11 (1) h]; all P<0.001. Total consumption of rescue analgesic was significantly lower in group BT2 compared with other groups (P<0.001). There were no significant changes in heart rate, arterial pressure and oxygen saturation between groups. Adverse effects were not observed.ConclusionsCaudal tramadol 2 mg kg(-1), combined with bupivacaine 0.25% 0.75 ml kg(-1), provided longer duration of postoperative analgesia and reduced requirement for rescue analgesic compared with tramadol 1 mg kg(-1) or 1.5 mg kg(-1) in children undergoing inguinal herniotomy.
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