Randomized Controlled Trial Clinical Trial
In countries where routine varicella vaccination is implemented, it is usually given at the same age as that recommended for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination. A combined multivalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine would offer the convenience of a single injection and facilitate implementation of varicella vaccination into routine childhood immunisation schedules. We evaluated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a tetravalent MMRV candidate vaccine compared to an extemporaneous mix of a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and varicella vaccine (MMR/V), and to a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine alone. ⋯ With respect to immunogenicity, MMRV and MMR/V demonstrated similar seroconversion rates to each component compared to MMR alone, with at least 91.9% of subjects in all groups seroconverting to each vaccine component 60 days after vaccination. Decreased GMTs for varicella antibody at day 60 indicated that there may have been inhibition of this response compared to MMR/V. This tetravalent MMRV candidate vaccine showed promising results, although further examination of the possible increase in minor fever and decreased varicella immunogenicity should be assessed in future studies.
Randomized Controlled Trial Multicenter Study Comparative Study Clinical Trial
The reactogenicity and immunogenicity of combined measles and rubella (MR) booster vaccination, via aerosol and subcutaneous routes, was assessed in 562 healthy children. Rates of rubella seroconversion and geometric mean titers (GMT) were similar for both routes. ⋯ This study demonstrates that aerosol vaccine was more immunogenic for measles antibodies, and equally immunogenic for rubella antibodies. Aerosol vaccine was less reactogenic.
The use of vaccines for the prophylaxis of influenza in children is limited. This is despite high annual rates of influenza in children and despite the complications caused by influenza in children with chronic respiratory illnesses. ⋯ Clinical experience with a virosome-formulated subunit influenza vaccine in children is presented. These clinical trials in children have shown a virosome-formulated subunit influenza vaccine to be immunogenic and well tolerated, indicating that it might be recommended for immunising healthy infants and children against influenza virus.
Influenza A is a viral disease of global dimension, presenting with high morbidity and mortality in annual epidemics, and in pandemics which are of infrequent occurrence but which have very high attack rates. Influenza probes reveal a continuing battle for survival between host and parasite in which the host population updates the specificity of its pool of humoral immunity by contact with and response to infection with the most recent viruses which possess altered antigenic specificity in their hemagglutinin (HA) ligand. HA ligand binds the virus to the cell to bring about infection. ⋯ Pandemics are believed, conventionally, to be derived solely by rare events in which wild viruses of man acquire a new HA ligand of avian origin. There might be an alternative possibility involving a periodicity in selective control by the host population itself, in its receptivity or rejection at a particular time of particular reassortant viruses which might be created more frequently in nature than we are presently aware. This hypothesis, though remote, provides a different way to view and to probe the enigma of pandemic influenza.