Review Meta Analysis
The publication of the Australasian Creatinine Consensus Working Group's position statements in 2005 and 2007 resulted in automatic reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with requests for serum creatinine concentration in adults, facilitated the unification of units of measurement for creatinine and eGFR, and promoted the standardisation of assays. New advancements and continuing debate led the Australasian Creatinine Consensus Working Group to reconvene in 2010. The working group recommends that the method of calculating eGFR should be changed to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula, and that all laboratories should report eGFR values as a precise figure to at least 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2). ⋯ Pending publication of validation studies, the working group also recommends that Australasian laboratories continue to automatically report eGFR in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The working group concluded that routine calculation of eGFR is not recommended in children and youth, or in pregnant women. Serum creatinine concentration (preferably using an enzymatic assay for paediatric patients) should remain as the standard test for kidney function in these populations.
Premature ejaculation is a form of male sexual dysfunction. As people's lifestyle changes and the population ages, the incidence of premature ejaculation continues to increase. Many clinical trials have proven that Chinese medicine has a significant effect in the treatment of premature ejaculation. In this systematic review, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Traditional Chinese medicine for premature ejaculation. ⋯ This systematic review will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Traditional Chinese medicine for treating premature ejaculation. Because all of the data used in this systematic review and meta-analysis has been published, this review does not require ethical approval. Furthermore, all data will be analyzed anonymously during the review process Trial.
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a method for increasing the precision and information yield of postoperative pain assessment. We recorded pain intensity ratings over 6 days after surgery in 502 elective surgery patients and examined individual pain trajectories. A linear fit of an individual patient's scores defines a trajectory with two features: (1) the intercept or initial pain intensity; and (2) the slope, or rate of pain resolution. Three pain trajectory patterns emerged from examination of the pain trajectory slopes. Most patients (63% of the sample) demonstrated a negative slope trajectory characterized by a decline in pain intensity over days after surgery. Other patients (25% of the sample) demonstrated a flat trajectory with no meaningful change over 6 days from pain they reported initially. A third patient group (12% of the sample) had a positive slope trajectory in which pain scores increased over 6 days after surgery. Measures derived from individual pain trajectories yielded much lower standard errors of measurement and therefore had better measurement precision than did conventional pain assessment methods. Pain trajectory measures proved sufficiently precise to characterize pain patterns reliably in individual patients. ⋯ Progress in acute pain management requires effective pain assessment. The acute pain trajectory quantifies rate of pain resolution as well as pain intensity. It affords more precise measurement than conventional pain assessment and can identify abnormal postoperative pain resolution.
Phantom limb pain (PLP) affects a high percentage of amputees. Since treatment options are limited, low quality of life and addiction to pain medication frequently occur. New treatments, such as mirror therapy or electrical sensory discrimination training, make use of the brain's plasticity to alleviate this centrally derived pain. ⋯ Home-based TDT could achieve a sustained reduction in PLP and should be considered as a possible alternative to established treatment methods.