Randomized Controlled Trial Multicenter Study
A small number of highly publicized case reports describe ischemic brain or spinal cord injury after surgery in the sitting ("beach chair") position. The incidence of such catastrophic outcomes remains unknown, as does the relationship between arterial blood pressure management and injury, because few hemodynamic details were included with those 4 cases. To add quantitative data to the discussion of anesthesia in the sitting position, we examined the detailed hemodynamics of a large number of patients managed at our institution who sustained no similar catastrophic outcomes. ⋯ This study provides a descriptive summary of intraoperative blood pressure changes, measured either invasively or noninvasively, and referenced to either head or heart level, but never lower than heart level, in patients under general anesthesia in the sitting position who sustained no catastrophic outcomes.
Review Meta Analysis Guideline
After reviewing available evidence the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group could only recommend:
- Epidural injections for herpes zoster neuropathic pain.
- Steroid injections for radiculopathy.
- Spinal cord stimulator for failed back surgery syndrome or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1
Neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) are the most common cause of intraoperative anaphylaxis in Western Australia. Differences in the rates of anaphylaxis between individual agents have been surmised in the past, but not proven, and are an important consideration if agents are otherwise equivalent. ⋯ Rocuronium has a higher rate of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis compared with vecuronium, a result that is statistically significant and clinically important. Cisatracurium had the lowest rate of cross-reactivity in patients who had previously suffered anaphylaxis to rocuronium or vecuronium.
Ventilator-induced lung injury occurs due to exaggerated local stresses, repeated collapse, and opening of terminal air spaces in poorly aerated dependent lung, and increased stretch in nondependent lung. The aim of this study was to quantify the functional behavior of peripheral lung units in whole-lung lavage-induced surfactant depletion, and to assess the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure. ⋯ Ventilation of poorly aerated dependent lung regions, which can promote the local concentration of mechanical stresses, was the predominant functional behavior in surfactant-depleted lung. Potential tidal recruitment of atelectatic lung regions involved a smaller fraction of the imaged lung. Significant ventilation redistribution to aerated lung regions places these at risk of increased stretch injury.