Created July 28, 2016, last updated 28 days ago.
Collection: 75, Score: 2081, Trend score: 0, Read count: 2082, Articles count: 14, Created: 2016-07-28 04:21:18 UTC. Updated: 2021-07-04 00:54:50 UTC.
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Multicenter Study Clinical Trial
Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) causes rapidly developing deficiencies in clotting factors and contributes to substantial maternal morbidity and mortality. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®)) is increasingly used as a point of care coagulation monitoring device in patients with massive haemorrhage; however, there are limited data on reference ranges in the peri-partum period. These are required due to the haemostatic changes in pregnancy. ⋯ Reference values for ROTEM(®) parameters are reported. The previously published correlation between FIBTEM parameters and plasma fibrinogen levels by the Clauss method is confirmed. Further research is needed to define threshold values for haemostatic therapy in the course of PPH. Clinical trial registration NTR 2515 (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2515).
Comparative Study Clinical Trial
We compared blood component requirements during major obstetric haemorrhage, following the introduction of fibrinogen concentrate. A prospective study of transfusion requirements and patient outcomes was performed for 12 months to evaluate the major obstetric haemorrhage pathway using shock packs (Shock Pack phase). The study was repeated after the pathway was amended to include fibrinogen concentrate (Fibrinogen phase). ⋯ The median (IQR [range]) quantity of fibrinogen administered was significantly greater in the Shock Pack phase, 3.2 (0-7.1 [0-20.4]) g, than in the Fibrinogen phase, 0 (0-3.0 [0-12.4]) g, p = 0.0005. Four (9.5%) of 42 patients in the Shock Pack phase developed transfusion associated circulatory overload compared with none of 51 patients in the Fibrinogen phase (p = 0.038). Fibrinogen concentrate allows prompt correction of coagulation deficits associated with major obstetric haemorrhage, reducing the requirement for blood component therapy and the attendant risks of complications.
Placental abruption may cause significant haemorrhage and coagulopathy that can progress rapidly due to simultaneous consumption and depletion of clotting factors. Plasma fibrinogen levels are predictive of further haemorrhage. Rapid detection and treatment of hypofibrinogenaemia is essential in the evolving clinical and haematological situation. ⋯ We describe four cases of placental abruption, haemorrhage and severe coagulopathy that span the introduction of the algorithm. Three cases were associated with intrauterine death and the fourth with delivery of an extremely premature neonate. Rotational thromboelastometry was used in all cases but methods of fibrinogen replacement differ, illustrating evolving management of the condition in our unit.
The understanding of coagulopathies in trauma has increased interest in thromboelastography (TEG®) and thromboelastometry (ROTEM®), which promptly evaluate the entire clotting process and may guide blood product therapy. Our objective was to review the evidence for their role in diagnosing early coagulopathies, guiding blood transfusion, and reducing mortality in injured patients. ⋯ Limited evidence from observational data suggest that TEG®/ROTEM® tests diagnose early trauma coagulopathy and may predict blood-product transfusion and mortality in trauma. Effects on blood-product transfusion, mortality, and other patient-important outcomes remain unproven in randomized trials.
We have evaluated the TEG thromboelastograph and the ROTEM thromboelastometer, two point-of-care devices that measure blood coagulation. During a one-week period, seven consultant anaesthetists, one consultant haematologist, one associate specialist anaesthetist and two senior trainee anaesthetists were trained by the manufacturers and set up, calibrated and used both systems, after which their views were obtained and specific technical/support information was sought from the manufacturers using a questionnaire. Although the devices shared common features, they differed in complexity and aspects of ease of use, and in their purchase and running costs.
Haemorrhage is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the obstetric population. The aim of this study was to compare the use of thromboelastography and laboratory analyses to evaluate haemostasis during major obstetric haemorrhage. A secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between the results of thromboelastography, laboratory analyses and estimated blood loss. ⋯ Impaired haemostasis, demonstrated by thromboelastography and laboratory analyses, was found after an estimated blood loss of 2000 mL. Thromboelastography provides faster results than standard laboratory testing which is advantageous in the setting of on-going obstetric haemorrhage. However, laboratory analyses found greater differences in coagulation variables, which correlated better with estimated blood loss.
Assessment of maternal coagulation to determine suitability for neuraxial anaesthesia and management of obstetric haemorrhage remains a challenge. Thromboelastography provides point of care patient assessment of the viscoelastic properties of whole blood clotting and can assist the clinician in haemostatic decision-making. The study aim was to determine the ROTEM® thromboelastometer 95% reference limits for third trimester parturients and to compare these with non-pregnant female controls. ⋯ ROTEM® thromboelastometry clearly demonstrates the hypercoagulability of pregnancy. Formal reference ranges for ROTEM® that may be potentially useful in the haemostatic management of the parturient are presented.
Major obstetric hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. We will review transfusion strategies and the value of monitoring the maternal coagulation profile during severe obstetric hemorrhage. ⋯ A massive transfusion protocol provides a key resource in the management of severe PPH. However, future studies are needed to assess whether formula-driven vs. goal-directed transfusion therapy improves maternal outcomes in women with severe PPH.
Major obstetric haemorrhage (MOH) remains an important medical challenge worldwide, contributing to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Prompt and appropriate management is essential if we are to improve outcomes and reduce substandard care that may result in adverse consequences. This review describes the current understanding of the pathophysiological aspects of MOH together with the principles of transfusion and haemostatic therapy, with emphasis on a coordinated multidisciplinary approach. We also highlight the current lack of evidence available from randomized controlled trials to inform best practice and the need to prioritize research in this key clinical area.
Thrombelastography® is a monitor of coagulation and fibrinolytic status, with point-of-care applications in managing haemorrhaging patients. Advocates have suggested a possible role in managing obstetric haemorrhage. This study aims to develop a pregnancy-specific thrombelastography-guided transfusion algorithm, which could be integrated into the management of postpartum haemorrhage. ⋯ From the assay-specific reference intervals obtained, it was possible to establish a pregnancy-specific thrombelastography-guided transfusion algorithm. Specific features of this transfusion algorithm included the preferential use of activated assays, the need for duplicates and a recommendation that an initial baseline thrombelastography measurement is established for subsequent serial comparisons. This transfusion algorithm has been developed to assist with assessment of coagulation and fibrinolytic status during postpartum haemorrhage.
Initially described in 1948 by Hertert thromboelastography (TEG) provides a real-time assessment of viscoelastic clot strength in whole blood. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) evolved from TEG technology and both devices generate output by transducing changes in the viscoelastic strength of a small sample of clotting blood (300 µl) to which a constant rotational force is applied. These point of care devices allow visual assessment of blood coagulation from clot formation, through propagation, and stabilization, until clot dissolution. ⋯ In addition, the independent contributions of platelets and fibrinogen to final clot strength can be assessed using added platelet inhibitors (abciximab and cytochalasin D). Increasingly, ROTEM and TEG analysis is being incorporated in vertical algorithms to diagnose and treat bleeding in high-risk populations such as those undergoing cardiac surgery or suffering from blunt trauma. Some evidence suggests these algorithms might reduce transfusions, but further study is needed to assess patient outcomes.
Thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) are point-of-care viscoelastic devices that use whole blood samples to assess coagulation and fibrinolysis. These devices have been studied extensively in cardiac surgery, but there is limited robust evidence supporting its use in obstetrics. The hesitancy toward its routine use in obstetrics may be due to the current lack of randomized controlled trials and large observational studies. ⋯ TEG and ROTEM can detect the hypercoagulable changes associated with pregnancy. Variability between study protocols and results suggests the need for future large prospective high-quality studies with standardized protocols to investigate the utility of TEG/ROTEM in assessing risk for thrombosis and hemorrhage as well as in guiding prophylaxis and treatment in obstetric patients. This review identifies the gaps and provides concrete recommendations for future studies to fill those gaps.
Review Meta Analysis
Severe bleeding and coagulopathy are serious clinical conditions that are associated with high mortality. Thromboelastography (TEG) and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) are increasingly used to guide transfusion strategy but their roles remain disputed. This review was first published in 2011 and updated in January 2016. ⋯ There is growing evidence that application of TEG- or ROTEM-guided transfusion strategies may reduce the need for blood products, and improve morbidity in patients with bleeding. However, these results are primarily based on trials of elective cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass, and the level of evidence remains low. Further evaluation of TEG- or ROTEM-guided transfusion in acute settings and other patient categories in low risk of bias studies is needed.
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