• Lancet · Nov 2022

    Randomized Controlled Trial

    Bivalirudin plus a high-dose infusion versus heparin monotherapy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomised trial.

    • Yi Li, Zhenyang Liang, Lei Qin, Mian Wang, Xianzhao Wang, Huanyi Zhang, Yin Liu, Yan Li, Zhisheng Jia, Limin Liu, Hongyan Zhang, Jun Luo, Songwu Dong, Jincheng Guo, Hengqing Zhu, Shengli Li, Haijun Zheng, Lijun Liu, Yanqing Wu, Yiming Zhong, Miaohan Qiu, Yaling Han, and Gregg W Stone.
    • General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang, China.
    • Lancet. 2022 Nov 26; 400 (10366): 184718571847-1857.

    BackgroundPrevious randomised trials of bivalirudin versus heparin in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have reported conflicting results, in part because of treatment with different pharmacological regimens. We designed a large-scale trial examining bivalirudin with a post-PCI high-dose infusion compared with heparin alone, the regimens that previous studies have shown to have the best balance of safety and efficacy.MethodsBRIGHT-4 was an investigator-initiated, open-label, randomised controlled trial conducted at 87 clinical centres in 63 cities in China. Patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI with radial artery access within 48 h of symptom onset who had not received previous fibrinolytic therapy, anticoagulants, or glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive bivalirudin with a post-PCI high-dose infusion for 2-4 h or unfractionated heparin monotherapy. There was no masking. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use was reserved for procedural thrombotic complications in both groups. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) types 3-5 bleeding at 30 days. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03822975), and is ongoing.FindingsBetween Feb 14, 2019, and April 7, 2022, a total of 6016 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI were randomly assigned to receive either bivalirudin plus a high-dose infusion after PCI (n=3009) or unfractionated heparin monotherapy (n=3007). Radial artery access was used in 5593 (93·1%) of 6008 patients. Compared with heparin monotherapy, bivalirudin reduced the 30-day rate of the primary endpoint (132 events [4·39%] in the heparin group vs 92 events [3·06%] in the bivalirudin group; difference, 1·33%, 95% CI 0·38-2·29%; hazard ratio [HR] 0·69, 95% CI 0·53-0·91; p=0·0070). All-cause mortality within 30 days occurred in 118 (3·92%) heparin-assigned patients and in 89 (2·96%) bivalirudin-assigned patients (HR 0·75; 95% CI 0·57-0·99; p=0·0420), and BARC types 3-5 bleeding occurred in 24 (0·80%) heparin-assigned patients and five (0·17%) bivalirudin-assigned patients (HR 0·21; 95% CI 0·08-0·54; p=0·0014). There were no significant differences in the 30-day rates of reinfarction, stroke, or ischaemia-driven target vessel revascularisation between the groups. Within 30 days, stent thrombosis occurred in 11 (0·37%) of bivalirudin-assigned patients and 33 (1·10%) of heparin-assigned patients (p=0·0015).InterpretationIn patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI predominantly with radial artery access, anticoagulation with bivalirudin plus a post-PCI high-dose infusion for 2-4 h significantly reduced the 30-day composite rate of all-cause mortality or BARC types 3-5 major bleeding compared with heparin monotherapy.FundingChinese Society of Cardiology Foundation (CSCF2019A01), and a research grant from Jiangsu Hengrui Pharmaceuticals.Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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