• Anesthesia and analgesia · Jul 2023

    Review

    A Narrative Review Illustrating the Clinical Utility of Electroencephalogram-Guided Anesthesia Care in Children.

    • Choon Looi Bong, Gustavo A Balanza, Charis Ern-Hui Khoo, TanJosephine Swee-KimJSFrom the Department of Pediatric Anesthesia, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore., Tenzin Desel, and Patrick Lee Purdon.
    • From the Department of Pediatric Anesthesia, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.
    • Anesth. Analg. 2023 Jul 1; 137 (1): 108123108-123.

    AbstractThe major therapeutic end points of general anesthesia include hypnosis, amnesia, and immobility. There is a complex relationship between general anesthesia, responsiveness, hemodynamic stability, and reaction to noxious stimuli. This complexity is compounded in pediatric anesthesia, where clinicians manage children from a wide range of ages, developmental stages, and body sizes, with their concomitant differences in physiology and pharmacology. This renders anesthetic requirements difficult to predict based solely on a child's age, body weight, and vital signs. Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring provides a window into children's brain states and may be useful in guiding clinical anesthesia management. However, many clinicians are unfamiliar with EEG monitoring in children. Young children's EEGs differ substantially from those of older children and adults, and there is a lack of evidence-based guidance on how and when to use the EEG for anesthesia care in children. This narrative review begins by summarizing what is known about EEG monitoring in pediatric anesthesia care. A key knowledge gap in the literature relates to a lack of practical information illustrating the utility of the EEG in clinical management. To address this gap, this narrative review illustrates how the EEG spectrogram can be used to visualize, in real time, brain responses to anesthetic drugs in relation to hemodynamic stability, surgical stimulation, and other interventions such as cardiopulmonary bypass. This review discusses anesthetic management principles in a variety of clinical scenarios, including infants, children with altered conscious levels, children with atypical neurodevelopment, children with hemodynamic instability, children undergoing total intravenous anesthesia, and those undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Each scenario is accompanied by practical illustrations of how the EEG can be visualized to help titrate anesthetic dosage to avoid undersedation or oversedation when patients experience hypotension or other physiological challenges, when surgical stimulation increases, and when a child's anesthetic requirements are otherwise less predictable. Overall, this review illustrates how well-established clinical management principles in children can be significantly complemented by the addition of EEG monitoring, thus enabling personalized anesthesia care to enhance patient safety and experience.Copyright © 2022 International Anesthesia Research Society.

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