• Curr Opin Crit Care · Dec 2023


    Sex as a biological variable in acute kidney injury.

    • Anita Dahiya, Neesh Pannu, and Danielle E Soranno.
    • Division of Nephrology, University of Alberta, Department of Medicine, Alberta, Canada.
    • Curr Opin Crit Care. 2023 Dec 1; 29 (6): 529533529-533.

    Purpose Of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the preclinical and clinical studies investigating sex as a biological variable, as well as the impact of gender, on the development of and progression of acute kidney injury (AKI).Recent FindingsDespite a matched degree of ischemia-reperfusion AKI based on measured glomerular filtration rates, male and female mice demonstrated important sex biases in cardiorenal outcomes (1). Although the 2012 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guideline for AKI reported that female sex is associated with increased rates of hospital acquired AKI, subsequent meta-analyses do not show increased risk of AKI in women. Recent large scale, multicenter epidemiologic studies suggest males have higher rates of hospital acquired AKI. However, women have been consistently shown to have worse renal outcomes after AKI. There may be also be gender-based differences in presentation to care and management.SummarySex is an important biological variable in animal models of acute kidney injury. The impact of sex on AKI likely varies based on the etiology of AKI. Preclinical studies demonstrate the nuances of sex chromosomes, sex hormones and epigenetic factors on AKI, however these have not been well studied in humans. Gender may also impact processes of care, treatment and clinical outcomes related to AKI. The scientific rigor and reproducibility of translational studies benefit from the consideration of sex and gender.Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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