Advances in nutrition
Caloric starvation, as well as various diets, has been proposed to increase the oxidative DNA damage induced by radiotherapy (RT). However, some diets could have dual effects, sometimes promoting cancer growth, whereas proposing caloric restriction may appear counterproductive during RT considering that the maintenance of weight is a major factor for the success of this therapy. A systematic review was performed via a PubMed search on RT and fasting, or caloric restriction, ketogenic diet (>75% of fat-derived energy intake), protein starvation, amino acid restriction, as well as the Warburg effect. ⋯ Preclinical studies with ketogenic diets yielded more conflicting results, perhaps because cancer cells can sometimes metabolize fatty acids and/or ketone bodies. Randomized trials are awaited to specify the role of each strategy according to the clinical setting, although more stringent definitions of proposed diet, nutritional status, and consensual criteria for tumor response assessment are needed. In conclusion, dietary interventions during RT could be a simple and medically economical and inexpensive method that may deserve to be tested to improve efficiency of radiation.
Diet has been hypothesized to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders. The aim was to conduct an umbrella review to summarize and evaluate the current evidence of prospective associations between any dietary factors and the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library up to November 2019 to identify systematic reviews with meta-analyses of prospective studies investigating the association between dietary factors (dietary patterns, foods and beverages, nutrients, and phytochemicals) and neurodegenerative disorders (cognitive decline, cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease, all-cause dementia, and Parkinson disease). ⋯ The results indicate that the Mediterranean diet, fish, and tea could be inversely associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, the quality of evidence was generally low, suggesting that further studies are likely to change the overall estimates. Thus, more well-conducted research, also investigating other dietary factors in association with neurodegenerative disorders, is warranted.