Anesthesia and analgesia
Randomized Controlled Trial Multicenter Study
In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we investigated whether epinephrine increased the efficacy of levobupivacaine and sufentanil during epidural labor analgesia. Seventy term parturients received an epidural injection of levobupivacaine 0.125% and sufentanil 0.75 microg/mL with or without 1:800,000 epinephrine. After an initial dose of 10 mL, a patient-controlled analgesia pump was started. ⋯ Hourly drug consumption, rescue dosing, and pain scores at 15 min and 20 min were lower in the epinephrine group. The incidence of motor block and duration of the second stage of labor tended to be higher in the epinephrine group and were associated with lower Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min. These findings suggest that the addition of epinephrine intensifies the effects of epidural levobupivacaine and sufentanil but may cause more motor block.
Randomized Controlled Trial Multicenter Study Comparative Study
An iontophoretic fentanyl HCl patient-activated transdermal system (fentanyl HCl PATS) is under development for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. The fentanyl HCl PATS is a needle-free, credit card-sized, preprogrammed system that is applied to the patient's upper outer arm or chest. The fentanyl HCl PATS was demonstrated to be superior to placebo in a previous trial; however, the randomization scheme used and the lack of control of entry pain level may have contributed to the lack of robust findings. ⋯ Patients (73.4%, PGA) and investigators (72.1%, IGA) considered the fentanyl HCl PATS a good or excellent method of pain control. Treatment-related adverse events were similar between groups. This study demonstrated the superiority of the iontophoretic fentanyl HCl PATS over placebo for acute postoperative pain management.