Anesthesia and analgesia
In anesthesia practice, inadequate antagonism of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBD) may lead to frequent prevalence of residual neuromuscular block that is associated with morbidity and death. In this study we analyzed the clinical decision on antagonizing NMBD to generate hypotheses about barriers to the introduction of experts' recommendations into clinical practice. ⋯ In our institution, the clinical decision to antagonize NMBD is mainly based on the pharmacological forecast and a qualitative judgment of the adequacy of the breathing pattern. Clinicians judge themselves as better skilled at avoiding residual block than they do their colleagues, making them overconfident in their capacity to estimate the duration of action of intermediate-acting NMBD. Awareness of these systematic errors related to clinical intuition may facilitate the adoption of experts' recommendations into clinical practice.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Postoperative pain can delay functional recovery after outpatient surgery. Multimodal analgesia can improve pain and possibly improve quality of recovery. In this study, we evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a preoperative transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block on patient recovery using the Quality of Recovery 40 (QoR-40) questionnaire after ambulatory gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Global QoR-40 scores range from 40 to 200, representing very poor to outstanding quality of recovery, respectively. ⋯ The TAP block is an effective adjunct in a multimodal analgesic strategy for ambulatory laparoscopic procedures. TAP blocks with ropivacaine 0.25% and 0.5% reduced pain, decreased opioid consumption, and provided earlier discharge readiness that was associated with better quality of recovery.
More than 200 studies and reports have been published regarding the use of dexmedetomidine in infants and children. We reviewed the English literature to summarize the current state of knowledge of this drug in children for the practicing anesthesiologist. Dexmedetomidine is an effective sedative for infants and children that only minimally depresses the respiratory system while maintaining a patent airway. ⋯ Consistent with its 2-hour elimination half-life, recovery after dexmedetomidine may be protracted in comparison with other sedatives. Dexmedetomidine provides and augments analgesia and diminishes shivering as well as agitation postoperatively. The safety record of dexmedetomidine suggests that it can be used effectively and safely in children, with appropriate monitoring and interventions to manage cardiovascular sequelae.
In vitro and in vivo studies of anesthetics have demonstrated serious neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. However, the clinical relevance of these findings to children undergoing anesthesia remains unclear. Using data from a sibling birth cohort, we assessed the association between exposure to anesthesia in the setting of surgery in patients younger than 3 years and the risk of developmental and behavioral disorders. ⋯ The risk of being subsequently diagnosed with developmental and behavioral disorders in children who were enrolled in a state Medicaid program and who had surgery when they were younger than 3 years was 60% greater than that of a similar group of siblings who did not undergo surgery. More tightly matched pairwise analyses indicate that the extent to which the excess risk is causally attributable to anesthesia or mediated by unmeasured factors remains to be determined.
Spontaneous breathing (SB), when allowed during mechanical ventilation (MV), improves oxygenation in different models of acute lung injury. However, it is not known whether oxygenation is improved during mechanically unsupported SB. Therefore, we compared SB without any support with controlled MV at identical tidal volume (VT) and respiratory rate (RR) without positive end-expiratory pressure in a porcine lung collapse model. ⋯ SB without any support improves oxygenation and reduces shunt in comparison with MV at identical settings. This seems to be achieved without any major signs of recruitment of collapsed lung regions.