Anesthesia and analgesia
Randomized Controlled Trial
Although often used to manage chronic pain acutely, the longer-term benefits of ketamine infusions remain uncertain. Despite this there has been significant growth in using ketamine infusions to treat chronic pain, rationalised by ketamine’s expected effect to reduce central sensitisation.
This meta-analysis identified a small benefit for up to two weeks after a ketamine infusion, although little evidence of longer-term benefit. There appears to be a dose-response effect, suggesting greater efficacy with high-dose ketamine infusions.
The underlying problem...
Most research on ketamine infusions focuses on perioperative analgesia. Trials invetsigating ketamine infusions for chronic pain are universally small, lack standardisation and are often low quality.
This meta-analysis unfortunately does not add clarity to the question of whether ketamine infusions have long-term benefit in chronic pain syndromes. Clinicians will continue to need to judge indication on a case-by-case basis...summary
Although uncommon, severe neurological events have been reported in patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. The presumed etiology of central nervous system injury is hypotension and subsequent cerebral hypoperfusion that occurs after alterations in positioning under general anesthesia. Most clinical trials have demonstrated that beach chair positioning results in reductions in regional brain oxygenation, cerebral blood flow, and jugular bulb oxygenation, as well as impairment in cerebral autoregulation and electroencephalographic/processed electroencephalographic variables. Further studies are needed to define the incidence of adverse neurological adverse events in the beach chair position, identify the best intraoperative neurological monitors that are predictive of neurocognitive outcomes, the lowest "safe" acceptable blood pressure during surgery for individual patients, and the optimal interventions to treat intraoperative hypotension.
Virtually all anesthesiologists care for patients who sustain traumatic injuries; however, the frequency with which operative anesthesia care is provided to this specific patient population is unclear. We sought to better understand the degree to which anesthesia providers participate in operative trauma care and how this differs by trauma center designation (levels I-V), using data from a comprehensive, regional database-the Washington State Trauma Registry (WSTR). We also sought to specifically assess operative anesthesia care frequency vis a vis the American College of Surgeons guidelines for continuous anesthesiology coverage for Level II trauma center accreditation. ⋯ This study highlights the frequent role anesthesiologists play in caring for patients who sustain traumatic injuries, in trauma centers levels I-V. In level II trauma centers, in-house anesthesiology coverage might have benefit for those patients requiring surgery within 1 hour, whereas the former American College of Surgeons requirement of 30-minute response time for out-of-hospital anesthesiology coverage is likely sufficient to provide satisfactory care to patients requiring surgery within 3 hours. Whether the increased cost of such in-house anesthesiology coverage at level II trauma centers is justified by its clinical benefit remains an unanswered question.