Review Meta Analysis Guideline
After reviewing available evidence the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group could only recommend:
- Epidural injections for herpes zoster neuropathic pain.
- Steroid injections for radiculopathy.
- Spinal cord stimulator for failed back surgery syndrome or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1
Review Meta Analysis
Randomized Controlled Trial
Nocebo effects can be acquired by verbal suggestion, but it is unknown whether they can be induced through observational learning and whether they are influenced by factors known to influence pain perception, such as pain anxiety or pain catastrophizing. Eighty-five female students (aged 22.5 ± 4.4 years) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Participants in the control condition (CC) received information that an ointment had no effect on pain perception. ⋯ The nocebo response correlated with pain catastrophizing but not with pain anxiety or somatosensory amplification. A nocebo response to pressure pain was induced by observational learning but not by verbal suggestion. This finding highlights the importance of investigating the influence of observational learning on nocebo hyperalgesia.
Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) frequently show prominent sensory abnormalities in their affected limb, which may extend proximally and even to unaffected body regions. This study examines whether sensory dysfunction is observed in unaffected body parts of CRPS patients, and investigates whether the extent of dysfunction is similar for the various sensory modalities. Quantitative sensory testing was performed in the unaffected extremities and cheeks of 48 patients with CRPS of the arm (31 with dystonia), and the results were compared with values obtained among healthy controls. ⋯ Except for a lower vibration threshold in the contralateral leg of CRPS patients with dystonia, no differences in sensory modalities were found between CRPS patients with and without dystonia. These results point to a general disturbance in central pain processing in patients with CRPS, which may be attributed to impaired endogenous pain control. Since pressure pain is the most deviant sensory abnormality in both unaffected and affected body regions of CRPS patients, this test may serve as an important outcome parameter in future studies and may be used as a tool to monitor the course of the disease.
Review Meta Analysis Guideline
As the nontherapeutic use of prescription medications escalates, serious associated consequences have also increased. This makes it essential to estimate misuse, abuse, and related events (MAREs) in the development and postmarketing adverse event surveillance and monitoring of prescription drugs accurately. ⋯ The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trials, Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership convened an expert panel to develop mutually exclusive and exhaustive consensus classifications and definitions of MAREs occurring in clinical trials of analgesic medications to increase accuracy and consistency in characterizing their occurrence and prevalence in clinical trials. The proposed ACTTION classifications and definitions are designed as a first step in a system to adjudicate MAREs that occur in analgesic clinical trials and postmarketing adverse event surveillance and monitoring, which can be used in conjunction with other methods of assessing a treatment's abuse potential.