Increased Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Hippocampal Dendritic Spine Density Are Associated with the Rapid Antidepressant-like Effect of Iron-citalopram and Iron-Imipramine Combinations in Mice.
Iron supplementation previously demonstrated antidepressant-like effects in post-partum rats. The present study evaluates the possible synergistic antidepressant effect of sub-therapeutic dose of iron co-administered with citalopram or imipramine in female Institute of Cancer Research mice. Depression-like symptoms were induced in the forced swim (FST), tail suspension (TST), and open space swim (OSST) tests while open field test (OFT) was used to assess locomotor activity. ⋯ Our study provides experimental evidence that iron has antidepressant-like effect and sub-therapeutic dose of iron combined with citalopram or imipramine produces more rapid antidepressant-like effect. We further show that iron alone or its combination with citalopram or imipramine attenuates the neuronal loss associated with depressive conditions, increases dendritic spines density and BDNF levels. These finding suggest iron-induced neuronal plasticity in the mice brain.
The anterior cingulate cortex is critical for acute stress-induced hypersensitivity in mice.
Stress can be categorized according to physical, psychological and social factors. Exposure to stress produces stress-induced hypersensitivity and forms negative emotions such as anxiety and depression. For example, acute physical stress induced by the elevated open platform (EOP) causes prolonged mechanical hypersensitivity. ⋯ Mechanistically, EOP exposure mainly altered evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents such as input-output and paired pulse ratio. Intriguingly, the mice exposed in the EOP also produced low-frequency stimulation induced short-term depression on excitatory synapses in the ACC. These results suggest that the ACC plays a critical role in the modulation of stress-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, possibly through synaptic plasticity on excitatory transmission.
P2X7 Receptor in microglia contributes to propofol-induced unconsciousness by regulating synaptic plasticity in mice.
Propofol infusion is processed through the wake-sleep cycle in neural connections, and the ionotropic purine type 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a nonspecific cation channel implicated in sleep regulation and synaptic plasticity through its regulation of electric activity in the brain. Here, we explored the potential roles of P2X7R of microglia in propofol-induced unconsciousness. ⋯ Electrophysiological approaches showed that propofol induced a decreased frequency of sEPSCs and an increased frequency of sIPSCs, A-740003 decrease frequency of sEPSCs and sIPSCs and Bz-ATP increase frequency of sEPSCs and sIPSCs under propofol anesthesia. These findings indicated that P2X7R in microglia regulates synaptic plasticity and may contribute to propofol-mediated unconsciousness.
Head down tilt 15° in acute ischemic stroke with poor collaterals: a randomized preclinical trial.
Cerebral collaterals are recruited after arterial occlusion with a protective effect on tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke. Head down tilt 15° (HDT15) is a simple, low cost and accessible procedure that could be applied as an emergency treatment, before recanalization therapies, with the aim to increase cerebral collateral flow. Spontaneously hypertensive rats have been shown to display anatomical differences in morphology and function of cerebral collaterals, compared to other rat strains, resulting in an overall poor collateral circulation. ⋯ HDT15 application increased cerebral perfusion (+16.6% versus +6.1%; p = 0.0040) and resulted in a small reduction of infarct size (83.6 versus 107.1 mm3; - 21.89%; p = 0.0272), but it was not associated with early neurological improvement, compared to flat position. Our study suggests that the response to HDT15 during MCA occlusion is dependent on baseline collaterals. Nonetheless, HDT15 promoted a mild improvement of cerebral hemodynamics even in subjects with poor collaterals, without safety concerns.
Remodeling of neuromuscular junctions in target muscle following nerve regeneration in mice after delayed peripheral nerve repair.
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) induces severe functional loss in extremities. Progressive denervation and atrophy occur in the muscles if the nerve repair is delayed for long periods of the time. To overcome these difficulties, detailed mechanisms should be determined for neuromuscular junction (NMJ) degeneration in target muscles after PNI and regeneration after nerve repair. ⋯ In addition, NMJ- and Schwann cell-related molecules showed high expression in the target muscle in the allograft model. These results suggest that Schwann cell migrating from the allograft might play a crucial role in nerve regeneration in the chronic phase after PNI. The relationship between the NMJ and Schwann cells should be further investigated in the target muscle.