American journal of hematology
Initially described in 1948 by Hertert thromboelastography (TEG) provides a real-time assessment of viscoelastic clot strength in whole blood. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) evolved from TEG technology and both devices generate output by transducing changes in the viscoelastic strength of a small sample of clotting blood (300 µl) to which a constant rotational force is applied. These point of care devices allow visual assessment of blood coagulation from clot formation, through propagation, and stabilization, until clot dissolution. ⋯ In addition, the independent contributions of platelets and fibrinogen to final clot strength can be assessed using added platelet inhibitors (abciximab and cytochalasin D). Increasingly, ROTEM and TEG analysis is being incorporated in vertical algorithms to diagnose and treat bleeding in high-risk populations such as those undergoing cardiac surgery or suffering from blunt trauma. Some evidence suggests these algorithms might reduce transfusions, but further study is needed to assess patient outcomes.
GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) is rate limiting for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, where BH4 is a cofactor for nitric oxide (NO) synthases and aromatic hydroxylases. GCH1 polymorphisms are implicated in the pathophysiology of pain, but have not been investigated in African populations. We examined GCH1 and pain in sickle cell anemia where GCH1 rs8007267 was a risk factor for pain crises in discovery (n = 228; odds ratio [OR] 2.26; P = 0.009) and replication (n = 513; OR 2.23; P = 0.004) cohorts. ⋯ The GCH1 pain association is attributable to an African haplotype with where its sickle cell anemia pain association is limited to females (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.21-5.94; P = 0.01) and has the opposite directional association described in Europeans independent of global admixture. The presence of a GCH1 haplotype with high BH4 in populations of African ancestry could explain the association of rs8007267 with sickle cell anemia pain crises. The vascular effects of GCH1 and BH4 may also have broader implications for cardiovascular disease in populations of African ancestry.