Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
The primary causes of scrotal trauma are blunt, penetrating, degloving, and electrical burn injuries to scrotal contents. Knowledge of the scrotal anatomy and appropriate imaging techniques are key for accurate evaluation of scrotal injuries. Ultrasonography (US) is the first-line imaging modality to help guide therapy for scrotal trauma, except in degloving injury, which results in scrotal skin avulsion. ⋯ Color flow and duplex Doppler imaging are highly useful techniques not only for assessing testicular viability and perfusion but also for evaluating associated vascular injuries such as pseudoaneurysms. A thorough familiarity with the US findings of scrotal trauma helps facilitate appropriate management. Supplemental material available at radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/27/2/357/DC1.
The popularization of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice and the introduction of mass screening for early lung cancer with the use of CT have increased the frequency of findings of subtle nodules or nodular ground-glass opacity. Nodular ground-glass opacity may be observed in malignancies such as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, as well as in their putative precursors, such as atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Nodular ground-glass opacity also may be seen in the presence of benign conditions, including focal interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, and hemorrhage. ⋯ The more extensive the solid portions of the lesion, the higher the probability of malignancy and the poorer the prognosis. An awareness of the clinical setting, in addition to familiarity with the thin-section CT features of nodular ground-glass opacity at initial and follow-up imaging over several months, can help identify malignancy and achieve an accurate diagnosis. A meticulous evaluation of those CT features, and their correlation with specific histopathologic characteristics, also may enable a more accurate prognosis in cases of neoplastic disease.