Anaesthesia and intensive care
Acute renal dysfunction after radiocontrast in patients with pre-existing renal impairment is not uncommon and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution was first reported to reduce radiocontrast nephropathy in 2004. This first study was, however; limited by its small sample size and as such, the use of isotonic sodium bicarbonate to prevent radiocontrast nephropathy is still not widely used by many anaesthetists and intensivists. ⋯ The incidence of acute renal failure requiring dialysis was low (1.4%) and was not significantly different after the use of isotonic sodium bicarbonate (relative risk 0.59, 95% CI: 0.15 to 2.42, P = 0.47; F = 0%). With the limited data available, isotonic sodium bicarbonate appears to be safe and very effective in reducing radiocontrast nephropathy in patients with mild pre-existing renal impairment. A large randomised controlled study is needed to confirm whether isotonic bicarbonate can improve patient centred clinical outcomes.
Review Meta Analysis
Meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials of selective digestive decontamination have clinical outcome measures, mainly pneumonia and mortality. This meta-analysis has a microbiological endpoint and explores the impact of selective digestive decontamination on Gram-negative and Gram-positive carriage and severe infections. We searched electronic databases, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, previous meta-analyses and conference proceedings with no language restrictions. ⋯ Gram-positive bloodstream infections were not significantly increased (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.41). The association of parenteral and enteral antimicrobials was superior to enteral antimicrobials in reducing carriage and severe infections due to Gram-negative bacteria. This meta-analysis confirms that selective digestive decontamination mainly targets Gram-negative bacteria; it does not show a significant increase in Gram-positive infection.
Review Meta Analysis
Intrathecal midazolam binds with gamma aminobutyric acid-A receptors in the spinal cord leading to an analgesic effect. Clinical studies suggested that intrathecal midazolam may also reduce nausea and vomiting when used as an adjunct to other spinal medications. However, the potential neurotoxic effect of intrathecal midazolam remains a concern. ⋯ The incidence of neurological symptoms after intrathecal midazolam was uncommon (1.8%) and did not differ from placebo (odds ratio 1.20, 95% CI 0.22 to 6.68, P=0.84). Based on the limited data available, intrathecal midazolam appears to improve perioperative analgesia and reduce nausea and vomiting during caesarean delivery. A multicentre registry or large randomised controlled study with a prolonged follow-up period would be useful to confirm the clinical safety of intrathecal midazolam.