Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology
High-grade gliomas impose substantial morbidity and mortality due to rapid cancer progression and recurrence. Factors such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain the cornerstones for treatment of brain cancer and brain cancer research. The role of anesthetics on glioma progression is largely unknown. ⋯ There was no difference in PFS and OS between patients who underwent surgical resection of high-grade glioma with minimal sedation (awake craniotomy) or GA. Further large prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to explore the role of anesthetics on glioma progression and patient survival.
Value-based care and quality improvement are related concepts used to measure and improve clinical care. Value-based care represents the relationship between the incremental gain in outcome for patients and cost efficiency. It is achieved by identifying outcomes that are important to patients, codesigning solutions using multidisciplinary teams, measuring both outcomes and costs to drive further improvements, and developing partnerships across the health system. ⋯ Validated, standardized core outcome sets for perioperative neuroscience are currently lacking, but neuroanesthesiologists can consider using traditional clinical indicators, patient-reported outcomes measures, and perioperative core outcome measures. Several examples of bundled care solutions have been successfully implemented in perioperative neuroscience to increase value; for example, enhanced recovery for spine surgery, delirium reduction pathways, and same-day discharge craniotomy. This review proposes potential individual- and system-based solutions to address barriers to value-based care and quality improvement in perioperative neuroscience.
Transnasal transsphenoidal (TNTS) pituitary surgery is associated with short-lived but intense nociceptive stimuli which cause substantial hemodynamic perturbations that may increase blood loss and impair visualization of the surgical field. This systematic review aimed to critically appraise the clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of various anesthetic techniques, other pharmacological modalities, and supplementary interventions by assessing intraoperative systemic hemodynamics, use of adjunct medications, quality of the surgical field, intraoperative blood loss, and recovery profiles in patients undergoing TNTS pituitary surgery. Relevant randomized clinical trials and observational studies were identified in a systematic literature search; 16 studies (13 randomized clinical trials, 3 observational studies) enrolling a total of 907 patients were identified for inclusion in this review. ⋯ Although there was no clear-cut superiority of other adjunct pharmacological modalities on hemodynamic responses during surgery, regional blocks were associated with beneficial impacts on both primary and secondary outcomes. In summary, short-acting anesthetics, analgesics and dexmedetomidine seem to improve intraoperative hemodynamics, blood loss, and recovery qualities during TNTS pituitary surgery. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn because of methodological heterogeneity in the identified studies.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Low-dose droperidol has been reported to suppress the amplitude of transcranial electrical motor-evoked potentials (TCE-MEPs), but no randomized controlled trials have been conducted to assess this. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial aimed to test the hypothesis that low-dose droperidol reduced TCE-MEP amplitudes. ⋯ Low-dose droperidol (20 µg/kg) reduced TCE-MEP amplitudes. Anesthesiologists should pay attention to the timing of droperidol administration during intraoperative TCE-MEP recordings, even if used in a low dose.
Hyperglycemia is common among patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. We studied the effects of intensive blood glucose control among AIS patients presenting with hyperglycemia treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT). ⋯ Intensive blood glucose control among AIS patients presenting with hyperglycemia and treated with MT was not associated with lower rates of death or higher rates of long-term favorable outcomes when compared with standard treatment.