Symptoms of depression are common among patients before surgery. Depression may be associated with worse postoperative pain and other pain-related outcomes. This review aimed to characterise the impact of pre-operative depression on postoperative pain outcomes. ⋯ The change in pain scores from pre-operative baseline to 1-2 years after surgery was similar between patients with and without pre-operative depression (standardised mean difference 0.13 (95%CI -0.06-0.32), p = 0.15, I2 = 54%; very low certainty). Overall, pre-existing depression before surgery was associated with worse pain severity postoperatively. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating psychological care into current postoperative pain management approaches in patients with depression.
Randomized Controlled Trial
The current pandemic of surgical complications necessitates urgent and pragmatic innovation to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality, which are associated with poor pre-operative fitness and anaemia. Exercise prehabilitation is a compelling strategy, but it has proven difficult to establish that it improves outcomes either in isolation or as part of a multimodal approach. Simulated altitude exposure improves performance in athletes and offers a novel potential means of improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic fitness and alleviating anaemia within the prehabilitation window. ⋯ However, hypoxia induced a substantial increase in mean (SD) haemoglobin of 1.5 (2.7) g.dl-1 (13% increase, p = 0.028). This study has established the concept and feasibility of 'altitude prehabilitation' and demonstrated specific potential for improving haematological fitness. Physiologically, there is value in exploring a possible role for simulated altitude in pre-operative optimisation.
The Royal College of Anaesthetists' 7th National Audit Project baseline survey assessed knowledge, attitudes, practices and experiences of peri-operative cardiac arrests among UK anaesthetists and Anaesthesia Associates. We received 10,746 responses, representing a 71% response rate. In-date training in adult and paediatric advanced life support was reported by 9646 (90%) and 7125 (66%) anaesthetists, respectively. ⋯ An impact on future care delivery was reported by 196 (4%) anaesthetists, most commonly a negative psychological impact. Management of a peri-operative cardiac arrest during their career was reported by 8654 (85%) respondents. The overall impact on professional life was more often judged positive (2630, 30%) than negative (1961, 23%), but impact on personal life was more often negative.
We report the results of the Royal College of Anaesthetists' 7th National Audit Project organisational baseline survey sent to every NHS anaesthetic department in the UK to assess preparedness for treating peri-operative cardiac arrest. We received 199 responses from 277 UK anaesthetic departments, representing a 72% response rate. Adult and paediatric anaesthetic care was provided by 188 (95%) and 165 (84%) hospitals, respectively. ⋯ Annual updates in chest compressions and in defibrillation were available in 149 (76%) and 130 (67%) departments, respectively. Following a peri-operative cardiac arrest, debriefing and peer support programmes were available in 154 (79%) and 57 (29%) departments, respectively. While it is likely many UK hospitals are very well prepared to treat anaesthetic emergencies including cardiac arrest, the survey suggests this is not universal.
Acute postoperative pain remains a critical treatment priority and has prompted a search for technologies and techniques to assist with intra-operative analgesic monitoring and management. Anaesthetists traditionally rely on clinical judgement to guide intra-operative analgesia, but several emerging technologies such as the nociception level index herald the possibility of routine intra-operative analgesia monitoring. However, the impact of devices like nociception level index on postoperative outcomes has not been proven. ⋯ It found statistically significant benefits of nociception level index-guided analgesia for early postoperative pain (mean (95%CI) difference -0.46 (-0.88 to -0.03) on an 11-point scale, p = 0.03), and opioid requirement (mean (95%CI) difference -1.04 (-1.94 to -0.15) mg intravenous morphine equivalent, p = 0.02). Our meta-analysis of the current literature finds that nociception level index-guided analgesia statistically significantly reduces reported postoperative pain intensity and opioid consumption but fails to show clinically relevant outcomes. We found no evidence that nociception level index-guided analgesia affected postoperative nausea and vomiting nor duration of stay in the post-anaesthesia care unit.