Review Meta Analysis
There are data suggesting that intravenous dexamethasone has an effect on postoperative analgesia when given during single-shot spinal anaesthesia. However, the research literature is equivocal. We performed a systematic literature search followed by conventional meta-analysis (random effects model). ⋯ The time to first analgesic request (95%CI) was significantly prolonged by 86.62 (10.62-162.62) min, I2 = 93%, in the dexamethasone group. For other secondary outcomes including number of patients requiring rescue analgesia, or visual analogue scale pain scores, we found no evidence of a significant difference between the treatment arms. We report a high level of evidence that intravenous dexamethasone improves postoperative analgesia after spinal anaesthesia.
Phase lag entropy, an electro-encephalography-based hypnotic depth indicator, calculates diversity in temporal patterns of phase relationship. We compared the performance of phase lag entropy with the bispectral index™ in 30 patients scheduled for elective surgery. We initiated a target-controlled infusion of propofol using the Schnider model, and assessed sedation levels using the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale every 30 s with each stepwise increase in the effect-site propofol concentration. ⋯ Baseline variability in phase lag entropy and bispectral index was 3.3 and 5.7, respectively. The predicted propofol concentrations, using the Schnider pharmacokinetic model, producing a 50% probability of moderate and deep sedation were 1.96 and 3.01 μg.ml-1 , respectively. Phase lag entropy was found to be useful as a hypnotic depth indicator in patients receiving propofol sedation.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Perineural dexamethasone has a ceiling dose of 4 mg for prolongation of analgesia duration after injection of long-acting local anaesthetic for peripheral nerve block, but evidence for doses < 4 mg is lacking. This randomised controlled triple-blind trial tested the hypothesis that increasing doses of perineural dexamethasone between 1 mg and 4 mg would prolong the duration of analgesia in a dose-dependent manner. Eighty ASA physical status 1-2 patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopy under general anaesthesia with ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive saline (control), dexamethasone 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg and 4 mg, together with 20 ml ropivacaine 0.5%. ⋯ The median (IQR [range]) duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in a dose-dependent manner: control 685 (590-860 [453-1272]) min; 1 mg 835 (740-1110 [450-1375]) min; 2 mg 904 (710-1130 [525-1365]) min; 3 mg 965 (875-1025 [730-1390]) min; 4 mg 1023 (838-1239 [518-1500]) min (p = 0.03). There were no significant differences between the secondary outcomes. Perineural administration of dexamethasone with doses between 1 mg and 4 mg, combined with ropivacaine for interscalene brachial plexus block, prolongs duration of analgesia in a dose-dependent manner.
Episodic and ongoing hypoxaemia are well-described after surgery, but, to date, no studies have investigated the occurrence of episodic hypoxaemia following minimally-invasive colorectal surgery performed in an enhanced recovery setting. We aimed to describe the occurrence of postoperative hypoxaemia after minimally-invasive surgery in an enhanced recovery setting, and the association with morphine use, incision site, fluid intake and troponin increase. We performed a prospective observational study of 85 patients undergoing minimally-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer between 25 August 2016 and 17 August 2017. ⋯ Postoperative increases in troponin I were associated both with time spent below an oxygen saturation of 88% (p = 0.026) and hypopnoea episodes (p = 0.003). Even with minimally-invasive surgery and enhanced recovery after surgery, episodic hypoxaemia and hypopnoea episodes are common, but are not associated with morphine use, fluid intake or incision site. Further studies should investigate the relationship between hypoxaemia and troponin increase.
We report four years of observational data from a large UK hospital and tertiary referral unit, following the introduction of a rotational thromboelastometry-guided algorithm for treatment of coagulopathy in major obstetric haemorrhage. Fibrinogen concentrate was used to treat acquired hypofibrinogenaemia as defined by a FibTEM A5 value of < 7 mm, or 7-12 mm with ongoing or high risk of haemorrhage. Of 32,647 deliveries over 4 years, 893 (2.7%) women had an estimated blood loss ≥ 1500 ml. ⋯ When coagulopathy does occur, it appears to be multifactorial and can be severe. Point-of-care testing allows early identification and individualised treatment of coagulopathy. This is supported by the improved outcomes reported.