To date, data regarding the efficacy and safety of administering fibrinogen concentrate in cardiac surgery are limited. Studies are limited by their low sample size and large heterogeneity with regard to the patient population, by the timing of fibrinogen concentrate administration, and by the definition of transfusion trigger and target levels. Assessment of fibrinogen activity using viscoelastic point-of-care testing shortly before or after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in patients and procedures with a high risk of bleeding appears to be a rational strategy. ⋯ Use of cryoprecipitate as an alternative to fibrinogen concentrate might be considered to increase plasma fibrinogen levels. Although conclusive evidence is lacking, fibrinogen concentrate does not seem to increase adverse outcomes (i.e., thromboembolic events). Large prospective multi-centre studies are needed to better define the optimal perioperative monitoring tool, transfusion trigger and target levels for fibrinogen replacement in cardiac surgery.
Pre-operative intervention to improve general health and readiness for surgery is known as prehabilitation. Modification of risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, hazardous alcohol consumption and an unhealthy weight can reduce the risk of peri-operative morbidity and improve patient outcomes. Interventions may need to target multiple risk behaviours. ⋯ Overall, confidence ratings were lower than motivation levels in both the short- and long-term. This study identifies both substantial patient desire to modify behaviours for peri-operative benefit and the need for structured pre-operative support. These results provide objective evidence in support of a 'pre-operative teachable moment', and of patients' desire to change behaviours for health benefits in the short term.
Cataract surgery is usually of short duration and is associated with minimal pain when employing topical or regional anaesthesia. Patient education regarding the peri-operative process may help alleviate anxiety and avoid the need for sedation. ⋯ Many consider that pre-operative fasting is necessary due to the risk of aspiration but fasting may not be required if minimal sedation is administered. If the use of sedatives, hypnotics or analgesics is required, then their associated adverse events should be considered.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Thoracic interfascial plane blocks are effective for post-mastectomy acute analgesia. However, their effects on chronic pain are uncertain. We randomly allocated 80 women equally to pectoral nerve-2 (PECS 2) block or serratus plane block. ⋯ The pectoral nerve-2 block reduced median (IQR [range]) morphine consumption in the first 24 postoperative hours from 6 (3-9 [1-25]) mg to 4 (2-7 [0-37]) mg, p = 0.04. However, acute pain scores after serratus plane and pectoral nerve-2 blocks were similar, median (IQR [range]) 23 (11-35 [0-70]) mm vs. 18 (11-27 [0-61]) mm, respectively, p = 0.44. Pectoral nerve-2 block reduced chronic pain 6 months after mastectomy compared with serratus plane block.
Dental trauma is a common complication of tracheal intubation. As existing evidence is insufficient to validly assess the impact of different laryngoscopy techniques on the incidence of dental trauma, the force exerted onto dental structures during tracheal intubation was investigated. An intubation manikin was equipped with hidden force sensors in all maxillary incisors. ⋯ The use of the C-MAC did not have an impact on the median peak force. Although sex of anaesthetists did not affect peak force, more experienced anaesthetists generated a higher peak force than less experienced providers. We conclude that hyperangulated videolaryngoscopy was associated with a significantly decreased force exerted on maxillary incisors and might reduce the risk for dental injury in clinical settings.