Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
The objective was to determine the effect of apneic oxygenation (AP OX) on first pass success without hypoxemia (FPS-H) in adult patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in the emergency department (ED). ⋯ The use of AP OX during the RSI of adult patients in the ED was associated with a significant increase in FPS-H. These results suggest that the use of AP OX has the potential to increase the safety of RSI in the ED by reducing the number of intubation attempts and the incidence of hypoxemia.
The objective was to determine the testing threshold for lumbar puncture (LP) in the evaluation of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after a negative head computed tomography (CT). As a secondary aim we sought to identify clinical variables that have the greatest impact on this threshold. ⋯ Our decision analysis results suggest a testing threshold for LP after negative CT to be approximately 4.3%, with a range of 1.4% to 9.3% on robust PSA. In light of these data, and considering the low probability of aneurysmal SAH after a negative CT, classical teaching and current guidelines addressing testing for SAH should be revisited.
The role of observation services for emergency department patients has increased in recent years. Driven by changing health care practices and evolving payer policies, many hospitals in the United States currently have or are developing an observation unit (OU) and emergency physicians are most often expected to manage patients in this setting. Yet, few residency programs dedicate a portion of their clinical curriculum to observation medicine. ⋯ It is longitudinal, with learning objectives for each year of training, focusing initially on the basic principles of observation medicine and appropriate observation patient selection; moving to the management of various observation appropriate conditions; and then incorporating further concepts of OU management, billing, and administration. This curriculum is flexible and designed to be used in both academic and community EM training programs within the United States. Additionally, scholarly opportunities, such as elective rotations and fellowship training, are explored.
Review Meta Analysis
Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a rare, but serious etiology of headache. The diagnosis of SAH is especially challenging in alert, neurologically intact patients, as missed or delayed diagnosis can be catastrophic. ⋯ Less than one in 10 headache patients concerning for SAH are ultimately diagnosed with SAH in recent studies. While certain symptoms and signs increase or decrease the likelihood of SAH, no single characteristic is sufficient to rule in or rule out SAH. Within 6 hours of symptom onset, noncontrast cranial CT is highly accurate, while a negative CT beyond 6 hours substantially reduces the likelihood of SAH. LP appears to benefit relatively few patients within a narrow pretest probability range. With improvements in CT technology and an expanding body of evidence, test thresholds for LP may become more precise, obviating the need for a post-CT LP in more acute headache patients. Existing SAH clinical decision rules await external validation, but offer the potential to identify subsets most likely to benefit from post-CT LP, angiography, or no further testing.
Randomized Controlled Trial
The objectives were to determine if nebulized albuterol causes an increase in the serum lactate level compared to placebo and, secondarily, to confirm that albuterol decreases serum potassium levels compared to placebo in patients with normokalemia. ⋯ Nebulized albuterol increases lactate levels and decreases potassium levels in healthy adults.