European journal of pain : EJP
Randomized Controlled Trial
Why is this significant?
This is the first randomised controlled trial looking at the impact of perioperative ketamine on persistent post-surgical (PPS) pain 1 year after thoracic surgery. Thoracotomy is associated with both severe and a high incidence (up to 50% at 6 months) chronic pain.
Ketamine has important analgesic properties through NMDA blockade, and has been long thought (hoped) that via this it may modify chronic post-surgical pain. Nonetheless, many studies have been unable to show a benefit for ketamine in reducing PPS pain.
What did they show?
Chumbley et al. ran ketamine infusions at 0.1 mg/kg/hour for 96 hours in patients undergoing thoracotomy, starting with a 0.1 mg/kg bolus 10 minutes before surgery. Patients also received either an epidural or paravertebral infusion for post-operative analgesia.
Although there were small differences in acute pain (notably the ketamine group used less PCA morphine) there was no difference in persistent post-surgical pain at 12 months.
The evidence continues to mount against perioperative ketamine, suggesting it does not reduce persistent post-surgical pain, not-withstanding its acute analgesia benefits. Await results of the ROCKet trial (Reduction Of Chronic Post-surgical Pain with Ketamine) to provide greater clarity...
Notably, the researchers did demonstrate a dramatically lower incidence of PPS pain than for similar studies (27%, 18%, 13% at 3, 6, 12 months) across both the ketamine and placebo group. This suggests that either the study participants were not representative of the typical thoracotomy patient (unlikely), or other care associated with the study had a beneficial effect on reducing PPS – perhaps even via a Hawthorne-like effect.summary
Controlled Clinical Trial
This article presents the results of a parallel-group, non-randomized, controlled study that evaluated the feasibility of an online training program for improving observer detection of facial pain expression. ⋯ The index of facial pain expression (IFPE) is an online training program that can improve an observer's ability to reliably detect expressions of clinical pain after as few as 3.5-hr of training.
Fibromyalgia represents a condition still controversial in its entity, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management (Figure ). In a world where everybody is connected, and everybody is sharing their own image, fibromyalgia (FM) represents the emblematic pathology of misconnection and lack of specific biomarker. ⋯ The concept of misconnection defines FM in a different and holistic view and proposes different views of assessment, management and representation: FM pathophysiology: the desynchronization of brain and body FM recognition: the broken link between patients and physicians FM assessment: merging the body and mind for an optimal diagnosis and management FM treatment: re-establishing the good connections at different levels We hope to reconnect FM patients with all healthcare providers, help FM patients reconnect with their painful body and integrate FM into regular medical practice. SIGNIFICANCE: The concept of misconnection defines FM in a different and holistic view, and propose different views of assessment, management and representation.
Pain models are commonly used in drug development to demonstrate analgesic activity in healthy subjects and should therefore not cause long-term adverse effects. The ultraviolet B (UVB) model is a model for inflammatory pain in which three times the minimal erythema dose (3MED) is typically applied to induce sensitization. Based on reports of long-lasting postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) associated with 3MED, it was decided to investigate the prevalence of PIH among subjects who were previously exposed to 3MED at our research centre. In addition, re-evaluation of the UVB inflammation model using a reduced exposure paradigm (2MED) was performed in healthy subjects. ⋯ Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is an unwanted long-term side effect associated with the UVB inflammation model using the 3× minimal erythema dose (3MED) paradigm. In contrast, using a 2MED paradigm results in hyperalgesia that is stable for 36 hr and has a lower risk of inducing postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol may reduce pain after surgery compared with inhalational anaesthetic techniques. Whether propofol provides analgesic benefit may be influenced by the surgical procedure and anaesthetic/analgesic regime. Third molar surgery is a consistent and fairly standard surgical technique that provides a good model for postoperative pain. We investigated whether propofol TIVA or sevoflurane (SEVO) inhalational anaesthesia would produce better quality pain relief after third molar surgery. ⋯ Choice of general anaesthetic technique can affect postoperative analgesia. The results of this study suggest that propofol TIVA improves postoperative pain and patient satisfaction after third molar surgery compared to inhalational anaesthesia.