Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate ROS production over time in critically ill with sepsis patients and its correlation with outcome. ⋯ Serial measurements of the ROMs plasmatic levels together with the SOFA score and lactate levels could help to identify septic shock patients with a very high probability of death.
At present, elderly individuals represent approximately 18.5% of the European population and account for about 23% of surgical procedures performed. This patient population is at a higher risk for perioperative complications and adverse postoperative outcome. This narrative review highlights our current knowledge about physiological changes in the aging gut and the implications for anesthesiologists. ⋯ Healthy aging appears to be associated with modest slowing of gastric emptying, but this does not demand prolonged preoperative fasting. The physiological changes associated with polypharmacy also make elderly patients a risk group for pulmonary aspiration during anesthesia. Further research is needed to determine the effects of commonly used anesthetic agents on the pharyngo-gastrointestinal tract in elderly patients.
Randomized Controlled Trial Comparative Study
We hypothesized that the use of the channeled King Vision™ and Airtraq® would shorten the time for tracheal intubation compared with the Macintosh or GlideScope® laryngoscopes in patients with normal airways. ⋯ The King Vision™ and Airtraq® require longer intubation times, as primary outcome, and cause less sore throat than the Macintosh and GlideScope® when used by anesthesiologists with limited experience in patients with normal airways. Our conclusion is difficult to extrapolate to the expert anesthesiologists who are using videolaryngoscopes on a regular basis.
Randomized Controlled Trial Multicenter Study Comparative Study
Infection of perineural catheter is rare, although bacterial colonization is frequent. An observational study reported that subcutaneous tunneling perineural catheter could decrease its colonization rate. We performed a comparative study to assess the incidence of catheter related bacterial colonization of tunnelized femoral perineural catheters. ⋯ Tunneled subcutaneous perineural catheter decreased the incidence of colonization. Moreover, tunnelization is an effective technique for securing the perineural catheter.
Hypnosis is a physiological mind activity characterized by focused attention, absorption, dissociation and plastic imagination. In the early 19th century, several hundred surgical interventions were described with hypnosis as the sole anesthetic, in an epoch when no anesthetic drugs were available; then hypnosis was prejudicially abandoned and forgotten after its introduction. In the past two decades, an increasing number of studies on hypnosis has shown its capacity to modify the activity of the prefrontal cortex, default mode network and pain neuromatrix (including the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, thalamus, insula and somatosensory cortex) and increase pain threshold up to the level of surgical anesthesia. ⋯ The wealth of data available in the literature provides clear evidence of its meaningful effects on perioperative emotional distress, pain, medication consumption, physiological parameters, duration of surgery and outcome. Hypnosis may be used as follows: 1) as sole anesthetic, in minor surgery and invasive maneuvers and/or selected patients; 2) as adjuvant of pharmacological anesthesia (local anesthesia and/or sedation); 3) as an adjuvant technique in both pre- and postoperative phases in patients submitted to general anesthesia. Hypnosis, unlike any other therapeutic tools, does not call for drugs or equipment and is an attractive technique: it is free of charge, not burdened with proved adverse events and promises to help improving cost/benefits ratio.