Cochrane Db Syst Rev
Review Meta Analysis
Worldwide, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) represents the most common means by which children acquire HIV infection. Efficacious and effective interventions to prevent in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV infection have been developed and implemented. However, a large proportion of MTCT of HIV occurs postnatally, through breast milk transmission. ⋯ Complete avoidance of breastfeeding is efficacious in preventing MTCT of HIV, but this intervention has significant associated morbidity (e.g., diarrheal morbidity if formula is prepared without clean water). If breastfeeding is initiated, two interventions 1). exclusive breastfeeding during the first few months of life; and 2) chronic antiretroviral prophylaxis to the infant (nevirapine alone, or nevirapine with zidovudine) are efficacious in preventing transmission.
Review Comparative Study
In children with falciparum malaria, a proprietary quinine preparation (adjusted to make it less acidic) administered rectally may be easier to use and less painful than intramuscular or intravenous administration. However, rectal quinine may be less effective. ⋯ We detected no difference in the effect on parasites and clinical illness for intrarectal quinine, but most trials were small. Pain may be less with intrarectal proprietary, buffered quinine preparations (made less acidic by adjustment of the pH to 4.5). Further larger trials in patients with severe malaria and in adults are required before the intrarectal route can be recommended.
Review Meta Analysis
Abrishami et al.'s Cochrane review of 18 RCTs totalling 1,300 patients confirmed the superiority of sugammadex compared with neostigmine at all studied levels of blockade. They identified sugammadex dosing of:
- 2 mg/kg - for reversal of rocuronium neuromuscular blockade at TOF-T2 reappearance.
- 4 mg/kg - for reversal at post-tetanic count of 1 to 2.
- 16 mg/kg - for reversal 3 to 5 minutes after a rocuronium intubating dose.
Importantly there was similar frequency of adverse events compared to neostigmine (< 1%), although overall small sample sizes mean no conclusion can be made regarding rare serious adverse events.summary
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by degeneration of anterior horn cells, which leads to progressive muscle weakness. Children with SMA type II do not develop the ability to walk without support and have a shortened life expectancy, whereas children with SMA type III develop the ability to walk and have a normal life expectancy. There are no known efficacious drug treatments that influence the disease course of SMA. ⋯ There is no proven efficacious drug treatment for SMA type II and III.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequently reported condition in active adults. A wide variety of conservative treatment strategies have been described. As yet, no optimal strategy has been identified. Application of orthotic devices e.g. knee braces, knee straps, forms of taping of the knee, active training devices, knee sleeves and inlay soles to support the foot have been advocated to treat this condition. ⋯ The evidence from randomised controlled trials is currently too limited to draw definitive conclusions about the use of knee and foot orthotics for the treatment of patellofemoral pain. Future high quality trials in this field are warranted.