Created February 7, 2022, last updated 4 months ago.
Collection: 152, Score: 90, Trend score: 0, Read count: 91, Articles count: 7, Created: 2022-02-07 04:39:26 UTC. Updated: 2022-02-07 04:45:34 UTC.
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Epidural catheter re-siting in parturients receiving labour epidural analgesia is distressing to the parturient and places them at increased complications from a repeat procedure. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a clinical risk factor model to predict the incidence of epidural catheter re-siting in labour analgesia. ⋯ Our predictive model of epidural re-siting in parturients receiving labour epidural analgesia could provide timely identification of high-risk paturients required epidural re-siting.
Identification of the epidural space is often performed using the loss of resistance technique to either air or saline. We sought to investigate if the medium used affected the quality of analgesia obtained by parturients who received labour epidurals. We conducted a retrospective audit of labour epidurals performed on nulliparous parturients in our institution from May 2003 to March 2005. ⋯ However patients in the air group had a higher incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain P = 0.023). We also identified three other factors that were associated with an increased incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain; administration of pre-block oxytocin, sitting position of the parturient during the procedure and the use of intrathecal bupivacaine for induction of analgesia. Our findings suggest that a loss of resistance to air is associated with a higher incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain among parturients who received combined spinal epidural analgesia for labour than a loss of resistance to saline.
Parturients who receive labor epidural analgesia may experience breakthrough pain that requires supplemental medications. We investigated the factors associated with breakthrough pain. This prospective observational study included 1963 parturients who received epidural analgesia. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of the number of episodes of breakthrough pain: the Recurrent Breakthrough Pain (RBP) group experienced three or more episodes. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate factors associated with the RBP group. By multivariate analysis, nulliparity, heavier fetal weight, and epidural catheter placement at an earlier cervical dilation were found to be independently associated with the RBP group. These factors may predict which parturients' analgesia may be complicated by breakthrough pain. Parturients who received a combined spinal/epidural technique were less likely to be associated with the RBP group. The combined spinal/epidural technique may be superior to conventional epidural anesthesia, because breakthrough pain occurred less often. It is interesting to note that the characteristics that are associated with the RBP group are similar to those that have been associated with increased severity of maternal pain. ⋯ Nulliparity, heavier fetal weight, and epidural catheter placement at an early cervical dilation are predictors of breakthrough pain during epidural labor analgesia. The combined spinal/epidural technique may be associated with a decreased incidence of breakthrough pain.
Continuous epidural analgesic infusions provide superior analgesia as compared to other forms of labor analgesia. However, inadequate analgesia after labor epidurals is not uncommon and has been found to be as high as 24% in some studies. The mechanism of these failures include inappropriate epidural catheter location, tissue compartmentalization within epidural space, delayed migration, kinking, occlusion or disconnection of correctly placed epidural catheter. ⋯ In parturients identified as being at high risk for failed epidural, ultrasound guidance, saline-based loss of resistance technique, and appropriate intra-epidural-space length of catheter are the methods that should be utilized to lower the incidence of failure.
Epidural analgesia is a popular choice for labour pain relief. Patient satisfaction is an important patient-centric outcome because it can significantly influence both mother and child. However, there is limited evidence in the correlations between clinical determinants and patient satisfaction. We aim to investigate clinical covariates that are associated with low patient satisfaction in parturients receiving labour neuraxial analgesia. ⋯ Our study has identified several clinical determinants that were independent associated factors for low patient satisfaction. These covariates could be useful in developing a predictive model to detect at-risk parturients and undertake time-sensitive precautionary measures for better patient satisfaction.
Epidural re-siting is one of the significant events during labour epidural analgesia that may result in decreased patient satisfaction. The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence of and factors associated with epidural re-siting in parturients using epidural analgesia, with an emphasis on those with breakthrough pain. ⋯ In our institution, the incidence of epidural catheter re-siting was low in all patients. However, the majority of patients whose catheters were re-sited had exhibited breakthrough pain. The risk factors associated with the need for re-siting of catheters in all patients differed from those who had breakthrough pain.
Failed epidural anaesthesia or analgesia is more frequent than generally recognized. We review the factors known to influence the success rate of epidural anaesthesia. Reasons for an inadequate epidural block include incorrect primary placement, secondary migration of a catheter after correct placement, and suboptimal dosing of local anaesthetic drugs. ⋯ Addition of adjuvants, especially opioids and epinephrine, may substantially increase the success rate of epidural analgesia. Adjuvant opioids may have a spinal or supraspinal action. The use of patient-controlled epidural analgesia with background infusion appears to be the best method for postoperative analgesia.
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