• Metformin and anti-aging

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    Daniel Jolley.

    12 articles.

    Created February 11, 2024, last updated 2 months ago.


    Collection: 165, Score: 0, Trend score: 0, Read count: 96, Articles count: 12, Created: 2024-02-11 00:42:08 UTC. Updated: 2024-02-11 01:58:28 UTC.

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    Collected Articles

    • Cell metabolism · Jun 2016

      Review

      Metformin as a Tool to Target Aging.

      Aging has been targeted by genetic and dietary manipulation and by drugs in order to increase lifespan and health span in numerous models. Metformin, which has demonstrated protective effects against several age-related diseases in humans, will be tested in the TAME (Targeting Aging with Metformin) trial, as the initial step in the development of increasingly effective next-generation drugs.

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    • Mech. Ageing Dev. · Dec 2022

      Review

      A blast from the past: To tame time with metformin.

      The strong evidence of metformin use in subjects affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on health outcomes, together with data from pre-clinical studies, has led the gerontological research to study the therapeutic potential of such a drug as a slow-aging strategy. However, despite clinical use for over fifty years as an anti-diabetic drug, the mechanisms of action beyond glycemic control remain unclear. ⋯ Based on the available evidence, we conclude that metformin, as shown in lower organisms and mice, may be effective in humans' longevity. A complete analysis and follow-up of ongoing clinical trials may provide more definitive answers as to whether metformin should be promoted beyond its use to treat T2DM as a drug that enhances both healthspan and lifespan.

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    • GeroScience · Apr 2019

      Review

      Taming expectations of metformin as a treatment to extend healthspan.

      The anti-hyperglycemic medication metformin has potential to be the first drug tested to slow aging in humans. While the Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) proposal and other small-scale clinical trials have the potential to support aging as a treatment indication, we propose that the goals of the TAME trial might not be entirely consistent with the Geroscience goal of extending healthspan. ⋯ However, it remains to be understood if these protective effects extend to those free of chronic disease. Within this editorial, we seek to highlight critical gaps in knowledge that should be considered when testing metformin as a treatment to target aging.

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    • Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) · Jan 2021

      Review

      A Critical Review of the Evidence That Metformin Is a Putative Anti-Aging Drug That Enhances Healthspan and Extends Lifespan.

      The numerous beneficial health outcomes associated with the use of metformin to treat patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), together with data from pre-clinical studies in animals including the nematode, C. elegans, and mice have prompted investigations into whether metformin has therapeutic utility as an anti-aging drug that may also extend lifespan. Indeed, clinical trials, including the MILES (Metformin In Longevity Study) and TAME (Targeting Aging with Metformin), have been designed to assess the potential benefits of metformin as an anti-aging drug. Preliminary analysis of results from MILES indicate that metformin may induce anti-aging transcriptional changes; however it remains controversial as to whether metformin is protective in those subjects free of disease. ⋯ We conclude that despite data in support of anti-aging benefits, the evidence that metformin increases lifespan remains controversial. However, via its ability to reduce early mortality associated with various diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and cancer, metformin can improve healthspan thereby extending the period of life spent in good health. Based on the available evidence we conclude that the beneficial effects of metformin on aging and healthspan are primarily indirect via its effects on cellular metabolism and result from its anti-hyperglycemic action, enhancing insulin sensitivity, reduction of oxidative stress and protective effects on the endothelium and vascular function.

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    • Aging cell · Feb 2019

      Randomized Controlled Trial

      Metformin inhibits mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training in older adults.

      Metformin and exercise independently improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the risk of diabetes. Metformin was also recently proposed as a potential therapy to slow aging. However, recent evidence indicates that adding metformin to exercise antagonizes the exercise-induced improvement in insulin sensitivity and cardiorespiratory fitness. ⋯ Mitochondrial protein synthesis rates assessed during AET were not different between treatments. The influence of metformin on AET-induced improvements in physiological function was highly variable and associated with the effect of metformin on the mitochondria. These data suggest that prior to prescribing metformin to slow aging, additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms that elicit positive and negative responses to metformin with and without exercise.

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    • Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) · Jan 2021

      Randomized Controlled Trial

      The Effect of Metformin on Self-Selected Exercise Intensity in Healthy, Lean Males: A Randomized, Crossover, Counterbalanced Trial.

      In general, patients with type 2 diabetes have lower cardiorespiratory fitness levels and perform exercise at lower intensities compared to healthy controls. Since metformin (MET) has been shown to increase the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise with a fixed intensity, MET per se may reduce self-selected exercise intensity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of MET on self-selected exercise intensity. ⋯ Self-selected exercise intensity was not reduced by MET in healthy males, despite the fact that MET increased RPE during an exercise bout with fixed intensity.

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    • Diabetes Obes Metab · Nov 2014

      Comparative Study Observational Study

      Can people with type 2 diabetes live longer than those without? A comparison of mortality in people initiated with metformin or sulphonylurea monotherapy and matched, non-diabetic controls.

      Clinical and observational studies have shown an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death associated with sulphonylureas versus metformin. However, it has never been determined whether this was due to the beneficial effects of metformin or detrimental effects of sulphonylureas. The objective of this study was therefore to compare all-cause mortality in diabetic patients treated first-line with either sulphonylurea or metformin monotherapy with that in matched individuals without diabetes. ⋯ Patients with type 2 diabetes initiated with metformin monotherapy had longer survival than did matched, non-diabetic controls. Those treated with sulphonylurea had markedly reduced survival compared with both matched controls and those receiving metformin monotherapy. This supports the position of metformin as first-line therapy and implies that metformin may confer benefit in non-diabetes. Sulphonylurea remains a concern.

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    • Int J Epidemiol · Dec 2022

      Reassessing the evidence of a survival advantage in Type 2 diabetes treated with metformin compared with controls without diabetes: a retrospective cohort study.

      Previous research has suggested that individuals with Type 2 diabetes and initiated on metformin monotherapy present with a survival advantage compared with the general population without diabetes. This finding has generated considerable interest in the prophylactic use of metformin against age-related morbidity. ⋯ Treatment initiation by metformin monotherapy in Type 2 diabetes was not associated with survival equal or superior to that of the general population without diabetes. Our contrasting findings compared with previous research are unlikely to be the result of differences in epidemiological or methodological parameters.

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    • Metab. Clin. Exp. · Aug 2022

      Review Meta Analysis

      Metformin: Is it a drug for all reasons and diseases?

      Metformin was first used to treat type 2 diabetes in the late 1950s and in 2022 remains the first-choice drug used daily by approximately 150 million people. An accumulation of positive pre-clinical and clinical data has stimulated interest in re-purposing metformin to treat a variety of diseases including COVID-19. In polycystic ovary syndrome metformin improves insulin sensitivity. ⋯ The objectives for this review are to: 1) evaluate the putative mechanism(s) of action of metformin; 2) analyze the controversial evidence for metformin's effectiveness in the treatment of diseases other than type 2 diabetes; 3) assess the reproducibility of the data, and finally 4) reach an informed conclusion as to whether metformin is a drug for all diseases and reasons. We conclude that the primary clinical benefits of metformin result from its insulin-sensitizing and antihyperglycaemic effects that secondarily contribute to a reduced risk of a number of diseases and thereby enhancing healthspan. However, benefits like improving vascular endothelial function that are independent of effects on glucose homeostasis add to metformin's therapeutic actions.

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    • Nature medicine · Jul 2017

      Randomized Controlled Trial

      Metformin alters the gut microbiome of individuals with treatment-naive type 2 diabetes, contributing to the therapeutic effects of the drug.

      Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but its mechanism of action is poorly defined. Recent evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a site of metformin action. In a double-blind study, we randomized individuals with treatment-naive T2D to placebo or metformin for 4 months and showed that metformin had strong effects on the gut microbiome. ⋯ Transfer of fecal samples (obtained before and 4 months after treatment) from metformin-treated donors to germ-free mice showed that glucose tolerance was improved in mice that received metformin-altered microbiota. By directly investigating metformin-microbiota interactions in a gut simulator, we showed that metformin affected pathways with common biological functions in species from two different phyla, and many of the metformin-regulated genes in these species encoded metalloproteins or metal transporters. Our findings provide support for the notion that altered gut microbiota mediates some of metformin's antidiabetic effects.

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    • N. Engl. J. Med. · Feb 1996

      Review

      Metformin.

      no abstract available

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    • Diabet. Med. · Jan 2016

      Comparative Study

      Unexpectedly long half-life of metformin elimination in cases of metformin accumulation.

      In a study of the oral administration of a single dose of metformin to healthy participants, the estimated half-life (t½ ) for the elimination of the drug from erythrocytes was found to be 23.4 h (compared with 2.7 h for metformin in plasma). However, these pharmacokinetic indices have not been well defined in metformin accumulation. ⋯ The prolonged elimination of accumulated metformin (even after dialysis therapy) challenges the traditional view that the drug clears rapidly because of a short half-life in plasma.

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