• Reg Anesth Pain Med · Aug 2021

    Review Meta Analysis

    Does the addition of iPACK to adductor canal block in the presence or absence of periarticular local anesthetic infiltration improve analgesic and functional outcomes following total knee arthroplasty? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    • Nasir Hussain, Richard Brull, Brendan Sheehy, Michael Dasu, Tristan Weaver, and Faraj W Abdallah.
    • Department of Anesthesiology, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
    • Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2021 Aug 1; 46 (8): 713-721.

    BackgroundWhen combined with adductor canal block (ACB), local anesthetic infiltration between popliteal artery and capsule of knee (iPACK) is purported to improve pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the analgesic benefits of adding iPACK to ACB in the setting of surgeon-administered periarticular local infiltration analgesia (LIA) are unclear.ObjectivesTo evaluate the analgesic benefits of adding iPACK to ACB, compared with ACB alone, in the setting of LIA following TKA.Evidence ReviewWe conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing the effects of adding iPACK block to ACB versus ACB alone on pain severity at 6 hours postoperatively in adult patients undergoing TKA. We a priori planned to stratify analysis for use of LIA. Opioid consumption at 24 hours, functional recovery, and iPACK-related complications were secondary outcomes.FindingsFourteen trials (1044 patients) were analyzed. For the primary outcome comparison in the presence of LIA (four trials, 273 patients), adding iPACK to ACB did not improve postoperative pain at 6 hours. However, in the absence of LIA (eight trials, 631 patients), adding iPACK to ACB reduced pain by a weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% CI) of -1.33 cm (-1.57 to -1.09) (p<0.00001). For the secondary outcome comparisons in the presence of LIA, adding iPACK to ACB did not improve postoperative pain at all other time points, opioid consumption or functional recovery. In contrast, in the absence of LIA, adding iPACK to ACB reduced pain at 12 hours, and 24 hours by a WMD (95% CI) of -0.98 (-1.79 to -0.17) (p=0.02) and -0.69 (-1.18 to -0.20) (p=0.006), respectively, when compared with ACB alone, but did not reduce opioid consumption. Functional recovery was also improved by a log(odds ratio) (95% CI) of 1.28 (0.45 to 2.11) (p=0.003). No iPACK-related complications were reported.ConclusionAdding iPACK to ACB in the setting of periarticular LIA does not improve analgesic outcomes following TKA. In the absence of LIA, adding iPACK to ACB reduces pain up to 24 hours and enhances functional recovery. Our findings do not support the addition of iPACK to ACB when LIA is routinely administered.© American Society of Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine 2021. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

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