• World Neurosurg · May 2022

    Evaluating craniovertebral stability in Chiari malformation coexisting with Type II basilar invagination: an observational study based on kinematic computed tomography and its clinical application.

    • Qiang Zhou, Chong Song, Qinguo Huang, Hong Li, Xiaoyu Yang, Lin Peng, Junjie Li, Lei Chen, Linyong Shi, Songtao Qi, and Yuntao Lu.
    • Department of Neurosurgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Nanfang Neurology Research Institution, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
    • World Neurosurg. 2022 May 17.

    BackgroundTreatment of Chiari malformation (CM) is controversial, especially when it coexists with "stable" or Type II basilar invagination (CM + II-BI). Precise evaluation of craniovertebral junction (CVJ) stability is crucial in such patients; however, this has never been validated. This study aimed to dynamically evaluate atlanto-condyle and atlantoaxial stability by kinematic computed tomography (CT) and report its surgical treatment.MethodsThe study recruited 101 patients (control, CM, and CM + II-BI groups: 48, 34, and 19 patients, respectively). During kinematic CT, the CVJ stability-related parameters were measured and compared between the 3 groups. The surgical strategy for treating CM + II-BI was based on these results. Preoperative and postoperative images were acquired, and functional scores were used to assess the outcome.ResultsAmong the 3 groups, the length of the clivus and the height of the condyle were the shortest in the CM + II-BI group, which was accompanied by the greatest rotation of the atlas and atlanto-condyle facet movement on cervical flexion and extension. Moreover, in such patients, increased Chamberlain's baseline violation indicated the aggregate invagination of the odontoid in the flexed position, and asymmetric displacement of atlantoaxial facets was observed. Seventeen CM + II-BI patients underwent surgical treatment with atlantoaxial distraction and occipitocervical fusion. The syringomyelia width and tonsillar herniation decreased significantly, and functional scores indicated symptom relief and good outcomes.ConclusionsCVJ instability, especially the ultramovement of atlanto-condyle facets, commonly exists in II-BI as evaluated using kinematic CT. The surgical strategy of atlantoaxial distraction and occipitocervical fusion should be considered to treat such patients.Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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