• Anesthesiology · Apr 2024

    Does celecoxib prescription for pain management impact post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage requiring surgery? A retrospective observational cohort study.

    • Vincent So, Dhenuka Radhakrishnan, Johnna MacCormick, Richard J Webster, Anne Tsampalieros, Gabriele Zitikyte, Allyson Ripley, and Kimmo Murto.
    • Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    • Anesthesiology. 2024 Apr 29.

    BackgroundAdenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy (now referred to as tonsillectomy thereafter) are common pediatric surgeries. Postoperative complications include hemorrhage requiring surgery (2-3% of cases) and pain. While non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly administered for post-surgical pain, controversy exists regarding bleeding risk with cyclo-oxygenase-1 inhibition and associated platelet dysfunction. Preliminary evidence suggests selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, for example celecoxib, effectively manage pain without adverse events including bleeding. Given the paucity of data for routine celecoxib use after tonsillectomy, we investigated the association between post-operative celecoxib prescription and post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage requiring surgery using chart-review data from the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Canada.MethodsAfter ethics approval we performed a retrospective single-center observational cohort study in children <18 yrs undergoing tonsillectomy from January 2007 to December 2017. Cases of adenoidectomy alone were excluded due to low bleed rates. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage requiring surgery. The association between a celecoxib prescription and post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage requiring surgery was estimated using inverse probability of treatment weighting based on propensity scores and using generalized estimating equations to accommodate clustering by surgeon.ResultsAn initial patient cohort of 6468 was identified and 5846 children with complete data were included in analyses. Median (interquartile range) age was 6.10 (4.40, 9.00) years and 46% were female. In our cohort, 28.1% (n=1644) were prescribed celecoxib. Among the 4996 tonsillectomy patients, 1.7% (n=86) experienced post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage requiring surgery. The proportion with post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage requiring surgery among patients who had a tonsillectomy and were or were not prescribed celecoxib was 1.94% (30/1548; 95% CI: 1.36-2.75) and 1.62% (56/3448; 95% CI: 1.25-2.10), respectively. Modelling did not identify an association between celecoxib prescription and increased odds of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage requiring surgery (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.85-2.31, p=0.20).ConclusionsCelecoxib does not significantly increase the odds of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage requiring surgery, after adjusting for covariates. This large pediatric cohort study of celecoxib administered after tonsillectomy provides compelling evidence for safety but requires confirmation with a multi-site randomized controlled trial.Copyright © 2024 American Society of Anesthesiologists. All Rights Reserved.

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