• Arch Orthop Trauma Surg · Jun 2024

    Total knee replacement with an accelerometer-based, hand-held navigation system improves knee alignment: reliable in all patients.

    • Diego Alarcon Perico, Sergio F Guarin Perez, Sheng-Hsun Lee, Christopher N Warne, Matthew Hadley, Michael J Taunton, and Rafael J Sierra.
    • Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S.W, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
    • Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2024 Jun 14.

    BackgroundAchieving adequate alignment has traditionally been an important goal in total knee arthroplasty to achieve long-term implant survival. While accelerometer-based hand-held navigation systems (ABN) has been introduced as a way to achieve alignment, there is a limited body of evidence on its accuracy, especially in patients under 65 years with differing etiologies for knee arthritis. This study aimed to assess the precision of a specific ABN system in restoring the mechanical axis and report surgical variables and complications, with particular attention to younger patients.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective review of 310 primary TKA performed with ABN from May 2016 to February 2021. The mean patient age was 67.4 (SD 8.9) years, with 43% under 65 years and mean body mass index of 33.2 (SD 6.8). The average surgical time was 96.8 min (57-171) and the average follow-up was 3.3 years (1.9-6.7). Data regarding length of stay, pain, range of motion (ROM), complications, and reinterventions were collected from the institutional joint arthroplasty registry and the medical records. Preoperative mechanical axis measurements and postoperative radiological data, including mechanical axis, component alignment and mechanical alignment outliers were analyzed.ResultsThe mean preoperative mechanical axis was 175.4° (SD 7.6), with 248 knees (80%) in preoperative varus. The mean postoperative mechanical axis was 179.5° (SD 1.96) with 98% of knees falling within ± 3° of the neutral mechanical axis. Only 6 knees (2 varus, 4 valgus) fell outside the ± 3° range. And 3 knees (1 varus, 2 valgus) fell outside the ± 5° range. In the sagittal plane, 296 knees (95.5%) knees were within ± 3° of goal of 3 degrees of femoral flexion and 302 (97.4%) knees were within ± 2° of goal 1° of slope for tibial component. Far outliers (alignment outside ± 5° of targeted position) were found in 3 knees. Factors such as posttraumatic arthrosis, previous surgery, presence of retained hardware, and age below 65 years were not associated with increase in alignment outliers and far outliers. No complications related to the navigation system were observed. There were 22 complications and 20 reoperations, including 2 revisions for periprosthetic joint infection and 1 revision for flexion instability. Patients that required knee manipulation achieved an ultimate flexion of 110° (SD 14.1).ConclusionsThe ABN system proved to be user-friendly and accurate in reducing alignment outliers in both coronal and sagittal planes in all patient populations. It offers a straightforward navigation solution while preserving surgeon autonomy and the use of traditional surgical tools. These findings advocate for the integration of this navigation system as a valuable tool to enhance the precision of TKA surgery in all patient groups.© 2024. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

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