- Kristin Wisløff-Aase, Johan Raeder, Grethe Månum, Marianne Løvstad, Anne-Kristine Schanke, Grete Dyb, Øivind Ekeberg, and Johan Kvalvik Stanghelle.
- Department of Anaesthesiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
- Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2019 Aug 1; 63 (7): 913-922.
BackgroundOn 22 July 2011, 48 people were hospitalized due to physical injuries from gun shots or explosion, following 2 terror attacks in the Oslo area, Norway. In this study, we have investigated the occurrence of chronic pain, the severity and consequences of chronic pain in these patients, 3 to 4 years after the incidents.MethodsTotally 43 eligible terror trauma patients were invited to participate in the study, 30 patients were included. They underwent a consultation with a psychologist and a physician; containing psychological assessment, neuropsychological screening, a standardized clinical interview, medical examination, and a pain protocol.ResultsIn 18 (60%) the injury was severe, as defined by New Injury Severity Score > 15. Twenty-four patients (80%) reported injury-related chronic pain after the trauma, in 22 with consequences on daily life. Analgesics were used by 20 patients, including 5 in need of opioids. Ten patients had unmet needs of further specialist pain care. In 12 patients, the average pain score last week was above three on a 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale. In these patients, clinical signs of neuropathic pain were evident in 10, as tested by the Douleur Neuropathique score. There were significant correlations (P < 0.05) between severity of chronic pain and presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms, reduced quality of life, reduced psychosocial and physical function; but no correlation with pre-injury patient characteristics or the degree of physical injury.ConclusionChronic pain was frequent and significant, irrespective of injury severity, in these patients who obtained their physical injuries under extreme psychological conditions.© 2019 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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