- Rui Zhao, Miaofa Ying, Shenglong Gu, Wei Yin, Yanwei Li, Hong Yuan, Sanhua Fang, and Mingxing Li.
- Department of Pharmacy, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, No.3 Qingchun East Road, Hangzhou 310016, China.
- Neuroscience. 2019 Dec 1; 422: 99-118.
AbstractMicroglia activation plays a key role in regulating inflammatory and immune reaction during cerebral ischemia and it exerts pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effect depending on M1/M2 polarization phenotype. Cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor (CysLT2R) is a potent inflammatory mediator receptor, and involved in cerebral ischemic injury, but the mechanism of CysLT2R regulating inflammation and neuron damage remains unclear. Here, we found that LPS and CysLT2R agonist NMLTC4 significantly increased microglia proliferation and phagocytosis, up-regulated the mRNA expression of M1 polarization markers (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, CD86 and iNOS), down-regulated the expression of M2 polarization markers (Arg-1, CD206, TGF-β, IL-10, Ym-1) and increased the release of IL-1β and TNF-α. CysLT2R selective antagonist HAMI3379 could antagonize these effects. IL-4 significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of M2 polarization markers, and HAMI3379 further increased IL-4-induced up-regulation of M2 polarization markers expression. Additionally, LPS and NMLTC4 stimulated NF-κB p50 and p65 proteins expression, and promoted p50 transfer to the nucleus. Pre-treatment with HAMI3379 and NF-κB signaling inhibitor Bay 11-7082 could reverse the up-regulation of p50 and p65 proteins expression, and inhibited p50 transfer to the nucleus. The conditional medium of BV-2 cells contained HAMI3379 could inhibit SH-SY5Y cells apoptosis induced by LPS and NMLTC4. These results were further confirmed in primary microglia. The findings indicate that CysLT2R was involved in inflammation and neuronal damage by inducing the activation of microglia M1 polarization and NF-κB pathway, inhibiting microglia M1 polarization and promoting microglia polarization toward M2 phenotype which may exerts neuroprotective effects, and targeting CysLT2R may be a new therapeutic strategy against cerebral ischemia stroke.Copyright © 2019 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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