JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery
The emerging approach of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for solid cancers has set the ground for the integration of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors into the neoadjuvant setting of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment. ⋯ In this systematic review and meta-analysis, neoadjuvant anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy for resectable HNSCC was well tolerated and may confer therapeutic advantages implied by histopathological response. Long-term outcomes are awaited.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Although oral corticosteroids are commonly prescribed following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without nasal polyposis, there are little data to suggest that this is a beneficial practice. ⋯ In this randomized clinical trial of patients with CRS without polyps, oral prednisone following ESS conferred no additional benefit over placebo in terms of SNOT-22 total scores, SNOT-22 rhinologic subscores, or Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scores up to 6 months after surgery. Patients receiving prednisone, however, did demonstrate worse SNOT-22 psychologic subdomain scores. These results suggest that the risks of oral corticosteroids may outweigh the benefits; thus use of oral corticosteroids after ESS for CRS without polyps should be carefully considered.
Three-dimensionally printed nasopharyngeal swabs (3DP swabs) have been used to mitigate swab shortages during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Clinical validation for diagnostic accuracy and consistency, as well as patient acceptability, is crucial to evaluate the swab's performance. ⋯ In this diagnostic study of 79 patients with COVID-19 and 10 controls, the 3DP swab performed accurately and consistently across health care institutions and could help mitigate strained resources in the escalating COVID-19 pandemic.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdowns in Ontario, Canada in the spring of 2020 created unprecedented changes in the lives of all children, including children with hearing loss. ⋯ The findings of this cohort study indicate a clear association of COVID-19 lockdowns with a reduction in children's access to spoken communication.
Decision-making in the timing of tracheostomy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has centered on the intersection of long-standing debates on the benefits of early vs late tracheostomy, assumptions about timelines of infectivity of the novel coronavirus, and concern over risk to surgeons performing tracheostomy. Multiple consensus guidelines recommend avoiding or delaying tracheostomy, without evidence to indicate anticipated improvement in outcomes as a result. ⋯ This cohort study from the first 2 months of the pandemic in New York City provides an opportunity to reconsider guidelines for tracheostomy for patients with COVID-19. Findings demonstrated noninferiority of early tracheostomy and challenges recommendations to categorically delay or avoid tracheostomy in this patient population. When aligned with emerging evidence about the timeline of infectivity of the novel coronavirus, this approach may optimize outcomes from tracheostomy while keeping clinicians safe.