Randomized Controlled Trial Comparative Study
WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Clusters of differentiation 39 and 73, enzymes expressed on the surface of regulatory T cells, promote cancer recurrence and metastasis by suppressing immune cells. The authors hypothesized that propofol is less immunosuppressive than volatile anesthetics. The objective of this randomized trial was to compare the changes in cluster of differentiation 39 and 73 expression on regulatory T cells between propofol- and sevoflurane-based anesthesia during breast cancer surgery. ⋯ Changes in immune cells were similar with propofol and sevoflurane during breast cancer surgery. The effect of anesthetics on the perioperative immune activity may be minimal during cancer surgery.
Randomized Controlled Trial
What did they do?
Using a randmoized, double-blind crossover study, Fong et al anaesthetized eight male volunteers twice with 1.2% isoflurane for 1 hour, after propofol induction. In the final 10 minutes subjects were randomized to IV caffeine or placebo. No opioids were administered.
Receiving IV caffeine hastened emergence by over 40%, as measured by BIS and psychomotor testing.
Return of gag reflex was used as the marker of emergence, although time to emergence was consistent with eye opening and BIS.
How much caffeine did they give?!?
15 mg/kg of caffeine citrate, equivalent to 7.5 mg/kg of base caffeine – the same caffeine as in two large cups of coffee for a 70 kg male.
Come on, surely this isn't that important?
Although the mean 7 min difference may not appear clinically significant, especially when using more modern volatiles, this study is a good proof of concept of how caffeine may be a useful clinical tool when faced with delayed emergence after anesthesia and for patients at greatest risk of persistent psychomotor depression post-anesthesia, such as the elderly.summary
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. ⋯ For clinical purposes, it is recommended to use the DSM-5 nomenclature. The working group recommends that 'perioperative neurocognitive disorders' be used as an overarching term for cognitive impairment identified in the preoperative or postoperative period. This includes cognitive decline diagnosed before operation (described as neurocognitive disorder); any form of acute event (postoperative delirium) and cognitive decline diagnosed up to 30 days after the procedure (delayed neurocognitive recovery) and up to 12 months (postoperative neurocognitive disorder).
WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: The mechanism by which anesthetics induce a loss of consciousness remains a puzzling problem. We hypothesized that a cortical signature of anesthesia could be found in an increase in similarity between the matrix of resting-state functional correlations and the anatomical connectivity matrix of the brain, resulting in an increased function-structure similarity. ⋯ Whatever the molecular mechanism, anesthesia led to a massive reconfiguration of the repertoire of functional brain states that became predominantly shaped by brain anatomy (high function-structure similarity), giving rise to a well-defined cortical signature of anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness.