Few studies of how exposure of children to anesthesia may affect neurodevelopment employ comprehensive neuropsychological assessments. This study tested the hypothesis that exposure to multiple, but not single, procedures requiring anesthesia before age 3 yr is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. ⋯ Anesthesia exposure before age 3 yr was not associated with deficits in the primary outcome of general intelligence. Although secondary outcomes must be interpreted cautiously, they suggest the hypothesis that multiple, but not single, exposures are associated with a pattern of changes in specific neuropsychological domains that is associated with behavioral and learning difficulties.
Obstetric anesthesia has evolved over the course of its history to encompass comprehensive aspects of maternal care, ranging from cesarean delivery anesthesia and labor analgesia to maternal resuscitation and patient safety. Anesthesiologists are concerned with maternal and neonatal outcomes, and with preventing and managing complications that may present during childbirth. ⋯ The impact of these advances on maternal and neonatal outcomes is discussed. Past and future progress in this field will continue to have significant implications on the health of women and children.
Randomized Controlled Trial Comparative Study
Differentiating drug-related changes and state-related changes on the electroencephalogram during anesthetic-induced unconsciousness has remained a challenge. To distinguish these, we designed a rigorous experimental protocol with two drugs known to have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. We hypothesized that drug- and state-related changes can be separated. ⋯ Electroencephalogram effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol are strongly drug- and state-dependent. Changes in slow-wave and alpha activity seemed to best detect different states of consciousness.
Propofol impairs upper airway dilator muscle tone and increases upper airway collapsibility. Preclinical studies show that carbon dioxide decreases propofol-mediated respiratory depression. We studied whether elevation of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) via carbon dioxide insufflation reverses the airway collapsibility (primary hypothesis) and impaired genioglossus muscle electromyogram that accompany propofol anesthesia. ⋯ Upper airway collapsibility induced by propofol anesthesia can be reversed in a dose-dependent manner by insufflation of supplemental carbon dioxide. This effect is at least partly mediated by increased genioglossus muscle activity.