Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Post-operative pain affects millions of patients worldwide and the post-operative period has high rates of morbidity and mortality. Some of this morbidity may be related to analgesics. The aim of this review was to provide an update of current knowledge of adverse events (AE) associated with the most common perioperative non-opioid analgesics: paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticoids (GCCs), gabapentinoids and their combinations. ⋯ Importantly, data on AEs of combinations of the above analgesics are sparse and inconclusive. Despite the potential adverse events associated with the most commonly applied non-opioid analgesics, including their combinations, reporting of such events is sparse and confined to the immediate perioperative period. Knowledge of benefit and harm related to multimodal pain treatment is deficient and needs clarification in large trials with prolonged observation.
Moderate to severe pain in the first week after axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer is experienced by approximately 50% of the patients. Damage to the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of persistent pain following breast cancer surgery but with limited information on acute post-operative pain. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of ICBN handling on pain during the first week after ALND. ⋯ The type of ICBN handling during ALND may not influence acute post-operative pain in the first week after surgery.
Review Meta Analysis
In contemporary post-operative pain management, patients are most often treated with combinations of non-opioid analgesics, to enhance pain relief and to reduce opioid requirements and opioid-related adverse effects. A diversity of combinations is currently employed in clinical practice, and no well-documented 'gold standards' exist. The aim of the present topical, narrative review is to provide an update of the evidence for post-operative analgesic efficacy with the most commonly used, systemic non-opioid drugs, paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/COX-2 antagonists, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids, and combinations of these. ⋯ Paracetamol, NSAIDs, selective COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin all seem to have well-documented, clinically relevant analgesic properties. The analgesic effects of glucocorticoids and pregabalin await further clarification. Combination regimens are sparsely documented and should be further investigated in future studies.
The standard approach for the suprascapular nerve block is deep in the supraspinous fossa. However, with this approach, the suprascapular nerve is difficult to visualize by ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe a new method to visualize and selectively block the suprascapular nerve in a more superficial and proximal location. ⋯ We describe a new ultrasound-guided low-volume local anaesthetic technique to selectively block the suprascapular nerve. The potential clinical role of this new approach remains to be determined.
Pulmonary embolism remains an important clinical problem with a high mortality rate. The potential for sudden and fatal hemodynamic deterioration highlights the need for a prompt diagnosis and appropriate intervention. The purpose of the present case report is to describe a successful peri-operative veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) implantation for assumed massive pulmonary embolism associated with high hemodynamic instability and severe hypoxemia. ⋯ The patient was able to be mobilized 2 days after the surgery and was transferred to a rehabilitation ward on day 15. At that time, her cognitive functions had fully recovered. ECMO can provide lifesaving hemodynamic and respiratory support in patients with massive pulmonary embolism who are too unstable to tolerate other interventions, who have failed other therapies or for whom other therapies are contraindicated.