Biography Historical Article
A key figure in the development of anaesthesia in Russia was the surgeon Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov (1810-1881). He experimented with ether and chloroform and organised the general introduction of anaesthesia in Russia for patients undergoing surgery. He was the first to perform systematic research into anaesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. More specifically, he was one of the first to administer ether anaesthesia on the battlefield, where the principles of military medicine that he established remained virtually unchanged until the outbreak of the Second World War.
Comparative Study Clinical Trial
We compared blood component requirements during major obstetric haemorrhage, following the introduction of fibrinogen concentrate. A prospective study of transfusion requirements and patient outcomes was performed for 12 months to evaluate the major obstetric haemorrhage pathway using shock packs (Shock Pack phase). The study was repeated after the pathway was amended to include fibrinogen concentrate (Fibrinogen phase). ⋯ The median (IQR [range]) quantity of fibrinogen administered was significantly greater in the Shock Pack phase, 3.2 (0-7.1 [0-20.4]) g, than in the Fibrinogen phase, 0 (0-3.0 [0-12.4]) g, p = 0.0005. Four (9.5%) of 42 patients in the Shock Pack phase developed transfusion associated circulatory overload compared with none of 51 patients in the Fibrinogen phase (p = 0.038). Fibrinogen concentrate allows prompt correction of coagulation deficits associated with major obstetric haemorrhage, reducing the requirement for blood component therapy and the attendant risks of complications.
The risk of accidental over-dosing of obese children poses challenges to anaesthetists during dose calculations for drugs with serious side-effects, such as analgesics. For many drugs, dosing scalars such as ideal body weight and lean body mass are recommended instead of total body weight during weight-based dose calculations. However, the complex current methods of obtaining these dosing scalars are impractical in the peri-operative setting. ⋯ A nomogram was created and its performance compared with the standard calculation method by volunteers using measurements from 108 obese children. The nomogram was as accurate (bias 0.12 kg vs -0.41 kg, respectively, p = 0.4), faster (mean (SD) time taken 2.8 (1.0) min (vs 3.3 (0.9) min respectively, p = 0.003) and less likely to result in mistakes (significant errors 3% vs 19%, respectively, p = 0.001). We present a system that simplifies estimation of ideal body weight and lean body mass in obese children, providing foundations for safer drug dose calculation.
Review Meta Analysis
We measured heating of isotonic saline by three fluid warmers in six experiments: saline at 5 °C or 20 °C delivered at 30, 50 or 100 ml.min(-1). At the three flow rates, the enFLOW(®) , buddy lite(™) and ThermoSens(®) systems heated 5 °C saline to mean (SD) temperatures of: 41.1 (0.5) °C, 37.7 (0.6) °C and 39.1 (0.6) °C; to 40.3 (0.8) °C, 33.9 (1.6) °C and 39.3 (0.7) °C; and to 37.1 (0.8) °C, 24.0 (1.3) °C and 37.6 (1.0) °C, respectively, p < 0.0001 for each experiment. ⋯ The results for saline at 20 °C were similar. The enFLOW system heated saline above 36 °C faster than the ThermoSens system, whereas the buddy lite often failed to achieve 36 °C.