Randomized Controlled Trial
The optimum time interval for 10 ml boluses of bupivacaine 0.0625% + fentanyl 2 μg.ml-1 as part of a programmed intermittent epidural bolus regimen has been found to be 40 min. This regimen was shown to be effective without the use of supplementary patient-controlled epidural analgesia boluses in 90% of women during the first stage of labour, although with a rate of sensory block to ice above T6 in 34% of women. We aimed to determine the optimum programmed intermittent epidural bolus volume at a 40 min interval to provide effective analgesia in 90% of women (EV90 ) during the first stage of labour, without the use of patient-controlled epidural analgesia. ⋯ No women required treatment for hypotension. In conclusion, it is not possible to reduce the programmed intermittent epidural bolus volume from 10 ml, used in our current regimen, without compromising the quality of analgesia. Using this regimen, a high proportion of women will develop a sensory block above T6.
Review Meta Analysis
Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia and can occur de novo following a surgical procedure. It is associated with increased inpatient and long-term mortality. There is limited evidence concerning new-onset atrial fibrillation following abdominal surgery. ⋯ Identified risk factors included: increasing age; history of cardiac disease; postoperative complications, particularly, sepsis, pneumonia and pleural effusions. New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation is common, and is more frequent after surgery involving the thorax. Future work should focus on stratifying risk to allow targeted prophylaxis of atrial fibrillation and other peri-operative complications.
We conducted an online survey to assess the career experiences of wrong side blocks, the practice of Stop-Before-You-Block, the recently described method of Mock-Before-You-Block and attitudes to these. Respondents were 208 anaesthetists across nine hospitals (173 consultants or Staff and Associate Specialist doctors'), representing 3623 years of collective anaesthetic practice. There had been a total of 62 wrong side blocks (by 51 anaesthetists and one current trainee). ⋯ Mock-Before-You-Block was easily understood (by 169 out of 197 (86%)) and 14 out of 61 (23%) respondents felt it would have prevented the wrong side error in their case. However, free-text comments indicated that many anaesthetists were reluctant to use a method that interrupted their performance of the block. We conclude that considerable work is needed to achieve full compliance with Stop-Before-You-Block at the correct time.
Randomized Controlled Trial Multicenter Study
Hip fracture surgery is common, usually occurs in elderly patients who have multiple comorbidities, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Pre-operative focused cardiac ultrasound can alter diagnosis and management, but its impact on outcome remains uncertain. This pilot study assessed feasibility and group separation for a proposed large randomised clinical trial of the impact of pre-operative focused cardiac ultrasound on patient outcome after hip fracture surgery. ⋯ Death, acute kidney injury and cerebrovascular accident were recorded, but no cases of myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism or cardiopulmonary arrest ocurred. Focused cardiac ultrasound altered the management of 17 participants, suggesting an effect mechanism. This pilot study demonstrated that enrolment and the protocol are feasible, that the primary composite outcome is appropriate, and that there is a treatment effect favouring focused cardiac ultrasound - and therefore supports a large randomised clinical trial.