Regional anesthesia and pain medicine
A cautionary summary of the benefits and potential risks of perineural dexamethasone.
"...there have been no reports of neurotoxicity or complications of any kind attributed to perineural dexamethasone in the nearly 700 patients who have received it in published studies of peripheral nerve blocks ... We must acknowledge that complications in regional anesthesia are rare, and 700 patients are woefully inadequate to declare dexamethasone safe for routine perineural use." (Noss 2014)
Noss concludes that:
- Perineural dexamethasone is probably safe, though conclusive safety evidence is still lacking.
- Systemic effects from IV dex is unlikely to explain the profound block prolongation.
- Prolongation is not enough on its own.
Perineural hematoma may occur during performance of peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an iatrogenic hematoma in the immediate vicinity of a peripheral nerve may cause histologic evidence of nerve injury. ⋯ Our data suggest that hematoma adjacent to nerve tissue may result in structural nerve injury and inflammatory changes.
Multicenter Study Observational Study
The incidence of chronic pain after cesarean delivery (CD) has been estimated to range between 0.3% and 18%. This wide range may be explained by differing study methodologies. Furthermore, a comprehensive characterization of pain quality is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate persistent pain in a healthy obstetric population undergoing planned CD and to provide a comprehensive description of pain quality. ⋯ The incidence of chronic pain at 12 months after planned CD is low (0.6%) and if present symptoms are mostly mild and not interfering with common daily activities. Using Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-Revised, this study provides a comprehensive evaluation of pain quality that can be used as a basis in future post-CD pain trials.
Optimization of clinical outcomes of lateral branch radiofrequency ablation or blocks for sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain requires precise nerve localization; however, there is a lack of comprehensive morphological studies. The objectives of this cadaveric study were to document SIJ innervation relative to bony landmarks in 3 dimensions and to identify reference points visible under ultrasound and fluoroscopy for optimal needle placement. ⋯ Based on the innervation pattern and using bony landmarks identifiable under ultrasound and fluoroscopy, 2 radiofrequency ablation techniques were proposed. Further research is required to determine the accuracy and reliability of needle placement and to evaluate clinical outcomes.