Created July 6, 2020, last updated 3 months ago.
Collection: 126, Score: 178, Trend score: 0, Read count: 179, Articles count: 5, Created: 2020-07-06 09:26:13 UTC. Updated: 2021-02-07 07:08:20 UTC.
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Advanced age, frailty, low education level, and impaired cognition are generally reported to be associated with postoperative cognitive complications. To translate research findings into hospital-wide preoperative assessment clinical practice, we examined the feasibility of implementing a preoperative frailty and cognitive assessment for all older adults electing surgical procedures in a tertiary medical center. We examined associations among age, education, frailty, and comorbidity with the clock and 3-word memory scores, estimated the prevalence of mild to major cognitive impairment in the presurgical sample, and examined factors related to hospital length of stay. ⋯ Frailty and cognitive screening protocols are feasible and provide information for perioperative care planning. Challenges to clinical adaptation include staff training, missing data, and additional administration time. These challenges appear minimal relative to the benefits of identifying frailty and cognitive impairment in a group at risk for negative postoperative cognitive outcome.
Perioperative management of older adults is a complex field that is heavily influenced by the clinical heterogeneity of older adults. Frailty-a geriatric syndrome in which a patient is more vulnerable to stressors due to decreases in physical function and reserve-has been indicative of adverse postoperative outcomes. ⋯ Frailty assessment before surgical interventions can also guide discussions among patients, their families, anesthesiologists, and surgeons to tailor operative plans for patients to mitigate this increased risk. Studies are ongoing to identify interventions in frail patients that can improve postoperative outcomes, but high-quality data in the form of randomized controlled trials are lacking at this time.
Frailty is present in more than 30% of individuals older than 65 years of age presenting for anesthesia and surgery, and poses a number of unique issues in the informed consent process. Much attention has been directed at the increased incidence of poor outcomes in these individuals, including postoperative mortality, complications, and prolonged length of stay. These material risks are not generally factored into conventional risk predictors, so it is likely that individuals with frailty are never fully informed of the true risk for procedures undertaken in the hospital setting. ⋯ The informed consent process in the frail elderly poses unique challenges to the busy clinical anesthesiologist. At the very least, an increased time commitment should be recognized. The gap between theoretical goals and actual practice of informed consent should be acknowledged.
Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome characterized by decreased reserve and diminished resistance to stressors. People with frailty are vulnerable to stressors, and exposure to the stress of surgery is associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes and higher levels of resource use. As Western populations age rapidly, older people with frailty are presenting for surgery with increasing frequency. ⋯ The Hospital Elder Life Program shows promise for delirium prevention, while individuals with mental health and or other psychosocial stressors may derive particular benefit from multidisciplinary care and preadmission discharge planning. Robust trials are still required to provide definitive evidence supporting these interventions and minimal data are available to guide management during the intra- and postoperative phases. Improving the care and outcomes of older people with frailty represents a key opportunity for anesthesiologists and perioperative scientists.
Older patients undergoing emergency general surgery (EGS) experience high rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Studies focused primarily on elective surgery indicate that frailty is an important predictor of adverse outcomes in older surgical patients. The population-level effect of frailty on EGS is poorly described. Therefore, our objective was to measure the association of preoperative frailty with outcomes in a population of older patients undergoing EGS. ⋯ After EGS, frailty is associated with increased rates of mortality, institutional discharge, and resource use. Strategies that might improve perioperative outcomes in frail EGS patients need to be developed and tested.
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