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    Steven Dimadis.

    2 articles.

    Created November 14, 2021, last updated 17 days ago.


    Collection: 145, Score: 15, Trend score: 0, Read count: 16, Articles count: 2, Created: 2021-11-14 10:02:30 UTC. Updated: 2021-11-14 10:16:14 UTC.

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    Collected Articles

    • Anesthesia and analgesia · Jul 2021

      Observational Study

      Association Between Lower Preoperative Cognition With Intraoperative Electroencephalographic Features Consistent With Deep States of Anesthesia in Older Patients: An Observational Cohort Study.

      Older patients with low pre-operative cognitive performance may inadvertently be receiving a relative overdose during volatile general anaesthesia.

      pearl

      read more… mark as read…

    • Anaesthesia · Aug 2020

      Review

      Airborne transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 to healthcare workers: a narrative review.

      In this review, Wilson, Norton, Young & Collins challenge the overly-simplistic view that SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk can be easily divided between droplet-contact and aerosol precautions.

      Why is this important?

      Many national societies have policies on Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) guided by classification of COVID exposure into aerosol-generation procedures (AGP) or other exposures. Although founded in some evidence, there are questions as to whether PPE shortage and availability also drives these recommendations. Widespread concern over healthcare worker (HCW) infection is understandable, given that during SARS 20% of infections were among HCWs.

      Understanding the science behind respiratory particle generation and transmission helps to inform our understanding of how best to use limited PPE.

      On the science of respiratory shedding

      Aerosol generation is important because virus inhalation and deposition in small distal airways may be associated with greater infection risk and disease severity. Wilson et al. describe three mechanisms of aerosol generation:

      1. Laryngeal activity - talking, coughing, sneezing.
      2. High velocity gas flow - eg. high-flow oxygen
      3. Cyclical opening & closing of terminal airways.  

      Notably, the clinically features of COVID itself make all three high-risk mechanisms more likely. Additionally various studies show that even talking and tidal volume breathing produce large numbers and size ranges of respiratory droplets.

      Exposure relative risk is primarily about proximity and exposure duration

      Further, considering retrospective data form SARS HCW infections involving various procedures (eg. intubation, HCW infection RR 4.2; oxygen mask manipulation RR 9; urinary catheterisation RR 5), Wilson et al. propose that healthcare work risk can be considered:

      infection risk ∝ 𝑏 × 𝑣 × 𝑡 / 𝑒

      Where: 𝑏 = breathing zone particle viable virion aerosol concentration, 𝑣 = minute volume of healthcare worker, 𝑡 = time exposed , 𝑒 = mask efficiency

      And on intubation:

      "...[other] healthcare workers should stand over 2 m away and out of the direct exhalation plume. During a rapid sequence intubation muscle relaxation should be protective as coughing will be prevented and high airway gas flow and expiratory output will terminate. When expiratory flow is ended ... aerosol particles should start settling in the airways. The forces generated in gentle laryngoscopy are unlikely to cause aerosol formation."

      "...[there is] limited evidence to suggest AGPs cause an increase in airborne healthcare worker transmission as this has not been studied. The few studies to sample pathogenic airborne particles in relation to procedures show no increase with the majority of AGPs."

      Bear in mind...

      Much of the evidence guiding our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is founded on understanding and research focusing on the 2003 SARS pandemic (SARS-CoV-1) and influenza research. Although sharing similarities, "...each has its own infective inoculum and aerosol characteristics."

      What's the bottom-line?

      Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 should be conceptualised as a spectrum of risk where time exposed may be the dominant factor and droplet-airborne spread is a complex continuum of varying probability of infection. Many 'non-AGP' events could in fact be higher risk than those traditionally considered AGP, such as intubation.

      summary

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