Cardiac arrest is rare in pregnancy (1 in 30,000) and resuscitation is founded on the same approach used for the non-pregnant patient, focusing on:
- Calling for help
- A B C (D)
- Good for mother = good for baby
However, unique to maternal resuscitation:
- Airway difficulties are more likely.
- Aortocaval compression dramatically impedes resuscitation – employ left lateral tilt!
- Consider perimortem cesarean section
The rationale for Perimortem Cesarean Section is:
- The presence of baby and gravid uterus severely limits resuscitation of the mother.
- Emergency cesarean section at cardiac arrest is done for the mother’s benefit, not the baby.
- A decision to perform emergency CS must be made within 4 minutes of arrest, and the baby delivered within 5 minutes. (Although there is some evidence of benefit when performed up to 10 minutes after arrest.)
- The only equipment required is a scalpel and an appropriately skilled doctor.
The remifentanil PCA for labour analgesia controversy continues...
Those advocating its first-line use point to reassuring evidence of maternal satisfaction and acceptability, reduced epidural rates, and some suggestion of reduced instrumental delivery rates.
For the negative, the ongoing safety concerns created by routine use of remifentanil PCAs are foremost, particularly given how uneven hospitals can be at implementing best safety practices. Observed rates of significant desaturation range from 25-70%, in addition to potential neonatal effects.
The greatest challenge facing the remiPCA advocates, is that the labour epidural is still the most effective form of labour analgesia, and has only improved over the decades as safety has been both maintained and increased.summary
What is the Quadratus Lumborum Block (QLB)?
The quadratus lumborum muscle is the deepest abdominal wall muscle, running posteriorly, dorsolateral to psoas major. Three different types of QLB have been described
What's the deal with QLB for Cesarean section?
QLB is interesting because it may offer analgesia for visceral pain after caesarean section, in addition to somatic pain. Visceral pain may be a significant contributor to post-CS pain experience, and is not blocked by existing adjuvant techniques such as the transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block.
The proposed effect of QLB on visceral pain may be due to local anaesthetic spread to the paravertebral space, although evidence confirming this is scant and suggests it occurs only in small volumes and inconsistently at best.
Additionally, as with the demonstrated inadequacy of objective sensory block from a TAP block, studies of the sensory level effects of QLB also show limited actual sensory block – even if the QLB has shown some analgesic benefit in some studies.
Some QLB studies have shown analgesic benefit for post-CS patients, although most are small studies. At this stage it appears unlikely that QLB provides routine analgesic benefit for patents already receiving standard-of-care multimodal analgesia in combination with a neuraxial anaesthetic for caesarean ection.summary