Journal of clinical anesthesia
To review research highlights of manuscripts published in 2016 that pertain to all aspects of the clinical practice of anesthesiology. ⋯ This recent body of evidence will both help inform anesthesiologists of the developing trends in anesthesiology and will also pose new challenges for further studies.
Postoperative vision loss following a major spine operation is a rare but life-changing event. Most of reports have been linked to ischemic optic neuropathy, and patients undergoing surgery for scoliosis correction or posterior lumbar fusion seem to be at the highest risk. Despite that some key risk factors have been identified, much of the pathophysiology still remain unknown. ⋯ Therefore, it is appropriate for clinicians involved in these cases to inform their patients about the existence of a small but unpredictable risk of vision loss. Since ischemic optic neuropathy is deemed to be the leading cause of vision loss in the context of major spine surgery in prone position, this review will be focused on its main aspects related to the frequency, diagnosis, predisposing factors, and prevention. Regrettably, no treatment has been proved to be effective for this condition.
Review Comparative Study
Perioperative factors are probably essential for different oncological outcomes. This systematic review investigates the literature concerning overall mortality and postoperative complications after cancer surgery with inhalational (INHA) and intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). A search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines, including studies with patients undergoing surgery for cancer and where TIVA was compared with INHA. ⋯ In one study, the rate of pulmonary complications was significantly higher after INHA compared with TIVA, while other postoperative complications were comparable. There are currently four propensity-adjusted retrospective studies indicating that TIVA might be the preferred anesthetic choice in cancer surgery. However, evidence is currently of low quality and randomized clinical trials are required for further investigation.
Review Meta Analysis
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with mortality after cardiac surgery. Several studies have reported that landiolol might help to prevent postoperative AF. The objective of this study was to investigate whether low-dose landiolol is useful in terms of balance of benefit and risk. ⋯ Our systematic review revealed that low-dose landiolol might help to prevent AF after cardiac surgery and further large trials are needed to evaluate safety because mortality and morbidity rate were very low in included studies.
Review Meta Analysis Comparative Study
The role of the programmed intermittent bolus (PIB) technique for infusion of local anesthetics in continuous peripheral nerve blockade (CPNB) remains to be elucidated. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on PIB versus continuous infusion for CPNB have demonstrated conflicting results and no systematic review or meta-analysis currently exists. We aimed to delineate via systematic review with meta-analysis if there is any analgesic benefit to performing PIB versus continuous infusion for CPNB. ⋯ The existing evidence demonstrates that PIB does not meaningfully reduce VAS pain scores in CPNB. This systematic review provides important information about the limitations of existing studies. Future studies should reflect contemporary practice and focus on more painful operations.