Randomized Controlled Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial Multicenter Study
POISE showed that for every 1000 patients receiving metoprolol, 15 were prevented from suffering a myocardial infract, 3 from requiring cardiac revascularization along with 7 new cases of atrial fibrillation, but at a cost of causing an excess 8 deaths, 5 strokes, 53 hypotensive events and 42 episodes of bradycardia.
The harm associated with perioperative beta-blockade, at least in the form of non-titrated extended-release metoprolol, is greater than the demonstrated benefit. For every two cases of myocardial infract avoided there is one excess death.summary
What's worth knowing?
Overall most studies of PPE efficacy are of low quality and offer a low certainty of conclusions. Caveat emptor...
- Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) with coverall may be more protective than N95 masks and gown (RR 0.27), but create unique donning challenges.
- Long-gowns may be better than a coverall, but are also more difficult to doff. Gowns are better than aprons. Better sealing, fitting, and one-piece removal at gown-glove interfaces and closer fit around the neck may reduce exposure.
- Double-gloving may reduce exposure.
- Better training, computer simulation, video lectures, following CDC protocols, and spoken instruction may improve donning and doffing compliance.