Randomized Controlled Trial
Review Meta Analysis
Postoperative pain continues to be inadequately managed. While opioids remain the mainstay for postoperative analgesia, their use can be associated with adverse effects, including ileus, which can prolong hospital stay. A number of studies have investigated the use of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion for improving postoperative analgesia and enhancing recovery of bowel function. ⋯ In conclusion, intravenous lidocaine infusion in the perioperative period is safe and has clear advantages in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Patients receiving lidocaine infusion had lower pain scores, reduced postoperative analgesic requirements and decreased intraoperative anaesthetic requirements, as well as faster return of bowel function and decreased length of hospital stay. Further studies are needed to assess whether lidocaine has a beneficial effect in patients undergoing other types of surgery and to determine the optimum dose, timing and duration of infusion of lidocaine in this setting.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Hepatic failure pathophysiology and intraoperative events contribute to AKI after OLT. Colloids are routinely used to maintain intravascular volume during OLT. Recent evidence has implicated 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (130/0.4) with AKI in critically ill patients. ⋯ Patients receiving 6% HES (130/0.4) likely had an increased odds of AKI compared with patients receiving 5% albumin during OLT. These retrospective findings are consistent with recent clinical trials that found an association between 6% HES (130/0.4) and renal injury in critically ill patients.
Randomized Controlled Trial Multicenter Study
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is reported to reduce biomarkers of ischemic and reperfusion injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but uncertainty about clinical outcomes remains. ⋯ Upper-limb RIPC performed while patients were under propofol-induced anesthesia did not show a relevant benefit among patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. (Funded by the German Research Foundation; RIPHeart ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01067703.).
Integrating opioid risk and benefit into a single function may give a useful single measure of the opioid's positive and negative effects. An explorative study on the effects of fentanyl on antinociception and respiratory depression was performed to construct fentanyl risk-benefit (utility) functions. ⋯ Utility functions based on fentanyl's experimental effects on respiration and pain relief were successfully constructed. These functions are useful in multiple effect comparisons among experimental drugs. Further studies are required to assess whether this risk-benefit analysis is valuable in clinical practice.