Review Meta Analysis
Nosocomial infections continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Maternal transport of immunoglobulins to the fetus mainly occurs after 32 weeks gestation and endogenous synthesis does not begin until several months after birth. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin provides IgG that can bind to cell surface receptors, provide opsonic activity, activate complement, promote antibody dependent cytotoxicity, and improve neutrophilic chemoluminescence. Intravenous immunoglobulin thus has the potential of preventing or altering the course of nosocomial infections. ⋯ IVIG administration results in a 3% reduction in sepsis and a 4 % reduction in any serious infection, one or more episodes, but is not associated with reductions in other important outcomes: sepsis, NEC, IVH, or length of hospital stay. Most importantly IVIG administration does not have any effect on mortality from any cause or from infections. Prophylactic use of IVIG is not associated with any short term serious side effects. From a clinical perspective a 3-4% reduction in nosocomial infections without a reduction in mortality or other important clinical outcomes is of marginal importance. The decision to use prophylactic IVIG will depend on the costs and the values assigned to the clinical outcomes. There is no justification for further RCTs testing the efficacy of previously studied IVIG preparations to reduce nosocomial infections in preterm and/or LBW infants. The results of these meta-analyses should encourage basic scientists and clinicians to pursue other avenues to prevent nosocomial infections.
Pfizer and BioNTech reported that phase 3 trials of their mRNA SARS-COV-2 vaccine showed:
- Analysis of 927 confirmed symptomatic cases of COVID-19 demonstrates BNT162b2 is highly effective with 91.3% vaccine efficacy observed against COVID-19, measured seven days through up to six months after the second dose.
- Vaccine was 100% effective in preventing severe disease as defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and 95.3% effective in preventing severe disease as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- Vaccine was 100% effective in preventing COVID-19 cases in South Africa, where the B.1.351 lineage is prevalent.
- Vaccine safety now evaluated in more than 44,000 participants 16 years of age and older, with more than 12,000 vaccinated participants having at least six months follow-up after their second dose.
To assess transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a detention facility experiencing a coronavirus disease outbreak and evaluate testing strategies, we conducted a prospective cohort investigation in a facility in Louisiana, USA. We conducted SARS-CoV-2 testing for detained persons in 6 quarantined dormitories at various time points. Of 143 persons, 53 were positive at the initial test, and an additional 58 persons were positive at later time points (cumulative incidence 78%). ⋯ Among persons who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 47% (52/111) were asymptomatic at the time of specimen collection; 14 had replication-competent virus isolated. Serial SARS-CoV-2 testing might help interrupt transmission through medical isolation and quarantine. Testing in correctional and detention facilities will be most effective when initiated early in an outbreak, inclusive of all exposed persons, and paired with infection prevention and control.