Randomized Controlled Trial
Current recommendations for women undergoing cesarean delivery include 15° left tilt for uterine displacement to prevent aortocaval compression, although this degree of tilt is practically never achieved. We hypothesized that under contemporary clinical practice, including a crystalloid coload and phenylephrine infusion targeted at maintaining baseline systolic blood pressure, there would be no effect of maternal position on neonatal acid base status in women undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia. ⋯ Maternal supine position during elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia in healthy term women does not impair neonatal acid-base status compared to 15° left tilt, when maternal systolic blood pressure is maintained with a coload and phenylephrine infusion. These findings may not be generalized to emergency situations or nonreassuring fetal status.
Electronic health record (EHR) systems have transformed the practice of medicine. However, physicians have raised concerns that EHR time requirements have negatively affected their productivity. Meanwhile, evolving approaches toward physician reimbursement will require additional documentation to measure quality and cost of care. To date, little quantitative analysis has rigorously studied these topics. ⋯ Ophthalmologists have limited time with patients during office visits, and EHR use requires a substantial portion of that time. There is variability in EHR use patterns among ophthalmologists.
Controlled Clinical Trial
Chronic lower back pain with or without radiculopathy represents an important medical, social, and economic problem. Many treatment modalities and techniques, including surgery and epidural administration of steroids, have been used to manage this pain. Hypertonic saline, which has been used as an adjunct to percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis, can also be injected via a transforaminal approach in expectation of longer-lasting effects. ⋯ Hypertonic saline provides more superior and longer lasting pain relieving effects when added to TFEIs.Key words: Back pain, epidural injections, epidural steroids, hypertonic saline, lumbar, radiculopathy, transforaminal.
Errors in clinical reasoning, known as cognitive biases, are implicated in a significant proportion of diagnostic errors. Despite this knowledge, little emphasis is currently placed on teaching cognitive psychology in the undergraduate medical curriculum. ⋯ Medical educators should nurture healthy skepticism among medical students by raising awareness of cognitive biases and equipping them with robust tools to circumvent such biases. This will enable tomorrow's doctors to improve the quality of care delivered, thus optimizing patient outcomes.
People diagnose themselves or receive advice about their illnesses from a variety of sources ranging from their family or friends, alternate medicine, or through conventional medicine. In all cases, the diagnosing mechanism is the human brain which normally operates under the influence of a variety of biases. Most, but not all biases, reside in intuitive decision making, and no individual or group is immune from them. ⋯ Exploring and cultivating such debiasing initiatives should be seen as the next major research area in clinical decision making. Awareness of bias and strategies for debiasing are important aspects of the critical thinker's armamentarium. Promoting critical thinking in undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education will lead to better calibrated diagnosticians.