Randomized Controlled Trial Comparative Study
Lidocaine has been widely used to relieve acute pain and chronic refractory pain effectively by both systemic and local administration. Numerous studies reported that lidocaine affects several pain signaling pathways as well as voltage-gated sodium channels, suggesting the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying pain relief by lidocaine. Some extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor subunits are thought to play a role in chronic pain mechanisms, but there have been few studies on the effects of lidocaine on ATP receptors. We studied the effects of lidocaine on purinergic P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7 receptors to explore the mechanisms underlying pain-relieving effects of lidocaine. ⋯ Lidocaine selectively inhibited the function of the P2X7 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This effect may be caused by acting on sites in the ion channel pore both extracellularly and intracellularly. These results help to understand the mechanisms underlying the analgesic effects of lidocaine when it is administered locally at least.
Randomized Controlled Trial Observational Study
An intraoperative concurrence of mean arterial pressure less than 75 mmHg, minimum alveolar concentration less than 0.8, and bispectral index less than 45 has been termed a "triple low" state. An association between triple low and postoperative mortality has been reported but was not replicated in a subsequent study. The authors pooled existing data from clinical trials to further evaluate the purported association in an observational study. ⋯ There is a weak independent association between the triple low state and postoperative mortality, and the propensity-matched analysis does not suggest that this is an epiphenomenon.
Biography Historical Article
The influence of Queen Victoria on the acceptance of obstetric anesthesia has been overstated, and the role of John Snow has been somewhat overlooked. It was his meticulous, careful approach and his clinical skills that influenced many of his colleagues, Tyler-Smith and Ramsbotham and the Queen's own physicians. The fact that the Queen received anesthesia was a manifestation that the conversion of Snow's colleagues had already taken place. ⋯ Medical theory may have changed, but practice did not, and the actual number of women anesthetized for childbirth remained quite low. This, however, was a reflection of economic and logistical problems, too few women were delivered of newborn infants during the care of physicians or in hospitals. Conversely, it is important to recognize that John Snow succeeded in lifting theoretical restrictions on the use of anesthesia.
Review Meta Analysis
Nerve blocks improve postoperative analgesia, but their benefits may be short-lived. This quantitative review examines whether perineural dexmedetomidine as a local anaesthetic (LA) adjuvant for neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks can prolong the duration of analgesia compared with LA alone. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of dexmedetomidine as an LA adjuvant to LA alone on neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks were reviewed. Sensory block duration, motor block duration, block onset times, analgesic consumption, time to first analgesic request, and side-effects were analysed. ⋯ were combined using random-effects modelling. A total of 516 patients were analysed from nine RCTs. Five trials investigated dexmedetomidine as part of spinal anaesthesia and four as part of a brachial plexus (BP) block. Sensory block duration was prolonged by 150 min [95% confidence interval (CI): 96, 205, P<0.00001] with intrathecal dexmedetomidine. Perineural dexmedetomidine used in BP block may prolong the mean duration of sensory block by 284 min (95% CI: 1, 566, P=0.05), but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Motor block duration and time to first analgesic request were prolonged for both intrathecal and BP block. Dexmedetomidine produced reversible bradycardia in 7% of BP block patients, but no effect on the incidence of hypotension. No patients experienced respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine is a potential LA adjuvant that can exhibit a facilitatory effect when administered intrathecally as part of spinal anaesthesia or peripherally as part of a BP block. However, there are presently insufficient safety data to support perineural dexmedetomidine use in the clinical setting.