• What is Long COVID?


    Daniel Jolley.

    28 articles.

    Created January 16, 2022, last updated 5 months ago.

    Collection: 148, Score: 407, Trend score: 0, Read count: 408, Articles count: 28, Created: 2022-01-16 02:10:39 UTC. Updated: 2023-01-25 22:43:14 UTC.


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    Collected Articles

    • Nature immunology · Jan 2022

      Immunological dysfunction persists for 8 months following initial mild-to-moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection.

      Long COVID shows evidence of immunological dysfunction persisting even 8 months after acute recovery.


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    • Pain · Sep 2022

      Multicenter Study

      Prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal pain symptoms as long-term post-COVID sequelae in hospitalized COVID-19 survivors: a multicenter study.

      This study investigated the prevalence of long-term musculoskeletal post-COVID pain and their risk factors in a large cohort of COVID-19 survivors. A multicenter cohort study including patients hospitalised because of COVID-19 in 5 hospitals of Madrid (Spain) during the first wave of the pandemic was conducted. Hospitalisation and clinical data were collected from medical records. ⋯ Female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 1.349, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.059-1.720), history of musculoskeletal pain (OR 1.553, 95% CI 1.271-1.898), presence of myalgia (OR 1.546, 95% CI 1.155-2.070) and headache (1.866, 95% CI 1.349-2.580) as COVID-19-associated onset symptoms, and days at hospital (OR 1.013, 95% CI 1.004-1.022) were risk factors associated with musculoskeletal post-COVID pain. In conclusion, musculoskeletal post-COVID pain is present in 45.1% of COVID-19 survivors at 8 months after hospital discharge with most patients developing de novo post-COVID pain. Female sex, history of musculoskeletal pain, presence of myalgia and headache as COVID-19 symptoms at the acute phase, and days at hospital were risk factors associated with musculoskeletal post-COVID pain.

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    • Chest · Jan 2022

      Persistent Exertional Intolerance after COVID-19: Insights from Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing.

      Patients with persisting exercise limitation after COVID infection show reduction in peak VO2 from peripheral rather than central cardiovascular limitation.


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    • Clin. Infect. Dis. · Aug 2021

      Patients with uncomplicated COVID-19 have long-term persistent symptoms and functional impairment similar to patients with severe COVID-19: a cautionary tale during a global pandemic.

      To assess the prevalence of persistent functional impairment after coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we assessed 118 individuals 3-4 months after their initial COVID-19 diagnosis with a symptom survey, work productivity and activity index questionnaire, and 6-minute walk test. We found significant persistent symptoms and functional impairment, even in non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

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    • JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc · Jul 2021

      Persistent Symptoms in Non-critical COVID-19 Patients at Two Months Follow-Up in a District Hospital: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study.

      The corona virus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 belonging to corona viruses which are enveloped positive stranded RNA viruses. Non-critical coronavirus disease 2019 patients often lack follow up visits which has led to incomplete understanding of disease process. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of persistent symptoms in such patients during two months follow-up to a district hospital. ⋯ The prevalence of persistent symptoms at two months follow up in our study was lower than findings from other international studies.

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    • Clin. Microbiol. Infect. · Jul 2021

      Persistent COVID-19 symptoms are highly prevalent 6 months after hospitalization: results from a large prospective cohort.

      Persistent COVID-19 symptoms have been reported up to 3 months after hospital discharge. Little is known on the frequency and the nature of persistent symptoms beyond 3 months. Here we have assessed, in the longitudinal prospective French COVID-19 cohort, symptoms that persisted 6 months after admission for COVID-19. ⋯ A fourth of individuals admitted to hospital for COVID-19 still had three or more persistent symptoms at M6. Longitudinal follow-up of individuals with severe COVID-19 is warranted to better understand the pathophysiology underlying this long-term persistence.

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    • Bmc Med · May 2021

      Multicenter Study Observational Study

      Sequelae, persistent symptomatology and outcomes after COVID-19 hospitalization: the ANCOHVID multicentre 6-month follow-up study.

      Long-term effects of COVID-19, also called Long COVID, affect more than 10% of patients. The most severe cases (i.e. those requiring hospitalization) present a higher frequency of sequelae, but detailed information on these effects is still lacking. The objective of this study is to identify and quantify the frequency and outcomes associated with the presence of sequelae or persistent symptomatology (SPS) during the 6 months after discharge for COVID-19. ⋯ COVID-19 cases requiring hospitalization during the first wave of the pandemic developed a significant range of mid- to long-term SPS. A detailed list of symptoms and outcomes is provided in this multicentre study. Identification of possible factors associated with these SPS could be useful to optimize preventive follow-up strategies in primary care for the coming months of the pandemic.

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    • Viruses Basel · May 2021

      Persistent COVID-19 Symptoms Minimally Impact the Development of SARS-CoV-2-Specific T Cell Immunity.

      SARS-CoV-2 represents an unprecedented public health challenge. While the majority of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 resolve their infection with few complications, some individuals experience prolonged symptoms lasting for weeks after initial diagnosis. Persistent viral infections are commonly accompanied by immunologic dysregulation, but it is unclear if persistent COVID-19 impacts the development of virus-specific cellular immunity. ⋯ We observed that persistent COVID-19 symptoms were not associated with the development of an overtly dysregulated cellular immune response. Furthermore, we observed that reactivity against the N protein from SARS-CoV-2 correlates with the amount of reactivity against the seasonal human coronaviruses 229E and NL63. These results provide insight into the processes that regulate the development of cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and related human coronaviruses.

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    • Bmc Infect Dis · Feb 2021

      Distorted chemosensory perception and female sex associate with persistent smell and/or taste loss in people with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies: a community based cohort study investigating clinical course and resolution of acute smell and/or taste loss in people with and without SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in London, UK.

      Loss of smell and/or taste are cardinal symptoms of COVID-19. 'Long-COVID', persistence of symptoms, affects around one fifth of people. However, data regarding the clinical resolution of loss of smell and/or taste are lacking. In this study we assess smell and taste loss resolution at 4-6 week follow-up, aim to identify risk factors for persistent smell loss and describe smell loss as a feature of long-COVID in a community cohort in London with known SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibody status. We also compare subjective and objective smell assessments in a subset of participants. ⋯ Although smell and/or taste loss are often transient manifestations of COVID-19, 42% of participants had ongoing loss of smell, 34% loss of taste and 36% loss of smell and taste at 4-6 weeks follow-up, which constitute symptoms of 'long-COVID'. Females (particularly > 40 years) and people with a distorted perception of their sense of smell/taste are likely to benefit from prioritised early therapeutic interventions.

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    • Journal of neurovirology · Feb 2021

      Case Reports

      Persistent COVID-19-associated neurocognitive symptoms in non-hospitalized patients.

      As cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mount worldwide, attention is needed on potential long-term neurologic impacts for the majority of patients who experience mild to moderate illness managed as outpatients. To date, there has not been discussion of persistent neurocognitive deficits in patients with milder COVID-19. We present two cases of non-hospitalized patients recovering from COVID-19 with persistent neurocognitive symptoms. ⋯ An observational cohort study of individuals recovering from COVID-19 (14 or more days following symptom onset) identified that among the first 100 individuals enrolled, 14 were non-hospitalized patients reporting persistent cognitive issues. These 14 participants had a median age of 39 years (interquartile range: 35-56), and cognitive symptoms were present for at least a median of 98 days (interquartile range: 71-120 following acute COVID-19 symptoms); no participants with follow-up evaluation reported symptom resolution. We discuss potential mechanisms to be explored in future studies, including direct viral effects, indirect consequences of immune activation, and immune dysregulation causing auto-antibody production.

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    • Int. J. Clin. Pract. · Dec 2021

      Multicenter Study

      Obesity is associated with a greater number of long-term post-COVID symptoms and poor sleep quality: A multicentre case-control study.

      Obesity is a risk factor associated with higher mortality at the acute phase of COVID-19; however, its influence on post-COVID symptoms is not known. ⋯ This study found that obesity was associated with a greater number of long-term post-COVID symptoms and poor sleep quality in hospitalised COVID-19 patients.

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    • Infect Dis (Lond) · Oct 2021


      Long COVID or post-COVID-19 syndrome: putative pathophysiology, risk factors, and treatments.

      Long COVID or post-COVID-19 syndrome first gained widespread recognition among social support groups and later in scientific and medical communities. This illness is poorly understood as it affects COVID-19 survivors at all levels of disease severity, even younger adults, children, and those not hospitalized. While the precise definition of long COVID may be lacking, the most common symptoms reported in many studies are fatigue and dyspnoea that last for months after acute COVID-19. ⋯ D-dimer, CRP, and lymphocyte count), although more research is required to substantiate such risk factors. While preliminary evidence suggests that personalized rehabilitation training may help certain long COVID cases, therapeutic drugs repurposed from other similar conditions, such as myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and mast cell activation syndrome, also hold potential. In sum, this review hopes to provide the current understanding of what is known about long COVID.

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    • J R Soc Med · Sep 2021


      Symptoms, complications and management of long COVID: a review.

      Globally, there are now over 160 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and more than 3 million deaths. While the majority of infected individuals recover, a significant proportion continue to experience symptoms and complications after their acute illness. Patients with 'long COVID' experience a wide range of physical and mental/psychological symptoms. ⋯ Beyond symptoms and complications, people with long COVID often reported impaired quality of life, mental health and employment issues. These individuals may require multidisciplinary care involving the long-term monitoring of symptoms, to identify potential complications, physical rehabilitation, mental health and social services support. Resilient healthcare systems are needed to ensure efficient and effective responses to future health challenges.

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    • Medicina clinica · Jul 2022

      Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Patients with Post-COVID-19 Syndrome.

      Several reports have shown the persistence of long term symptoms after the initial COVID-19 infection (post-COVID-19 syndrome). The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) performed in patients with a history of COVID-19, comparing subjects according to the presence of post-COVID-19 syndrome. ⋯ Our data suggest that post-COVID-19 syndrome was associated with less peak VO2, a lower probability of achieving the anaerobic threshold and a higher probability of presenting symptoms during the CPET. Future studies are needed to determine if these abnormalities during CPET would have prognostic value.

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    • Int J Environ Res Public Health · May 2021


      Post-COVID-19 Syndrome and the Potential Benefits of Exercise.

      The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is leading to unknown and unusual health conditions that are challenging to manage. Post-COVID-19 syndrome is one of those challenges, having become increasingly common as the pandemic evolves. ⋯ Exercise programs and physical activity levels are well-known modulators of the clinical manifestations and prognosis in many chronic diseases. This narrative review summarizes the up-to-date evidence on post-COVID-19 syndrome to contribute to a better knowledge of the disease and explains how regular exercise may improve many of these symptoms and could reduce the long-term effects of COVID-19.

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    • Clin Med (Lond) · Nov 2021

      Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of long COVID: early evaluation of a highly promising intervention.

      Long COVID is a common occurrence following COVID-19 infection. The most common symptom reported is fatigue. Limited interventional treatment options exist. We report the first evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for long COVID treatment. ⋯ Long COVID-related fatigue can be debilitating, and may affect young people who were previously in economic employment. The results presented here suggest potential benefits of HBOT, with statistically significant results following 10 sessions.

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    • Medicina · Oct 2021

      Case Reports

      Possible Adrenal Involvement in Long COVID Syndrome.

      Background: A significant number of patients with COVID-19 experience prolonged symptoms, known as Long COVID. The most frequent symptoms are fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. We describe a patient suffering from Long COVID in whom adrenal involvement was highlighted. ⋯ The patient started hydrocortisone acetate supplementation. Conclusion: Long COVID symptoms could be explained by an adrenal involvement, due to a COVID-19 action on adrenal glands and by a iatrogenic side effect of high glucocorticoid therapy during the COVID-19 infection. Salivary cortisol determination is effective for establishing a correct recovery plan.

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    • J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. · Aug 2022


      Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome for Anesthesiologists: A Narrative Review and a Pragmatic Approach to Clinical Care.

      Post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) syndrome is a novel, poorly understood clinical entity with life-impacting ramifications. Patients with this syndrome, also known as "COVID-19 long-haulers," often present with nonspecific ailments involving more than one body system. The most common complaints include dyspnea, fatigue, brain fog, and chest pain. ⋯ Perioperative care should be viewed through the prism of best practices already in use, such as avoidance of benzodiazepines in patients with cognitive impairment and use of lung-protective ventilation. Recommendations especially relevant to the COVID-19 long-haulers include assessment of critical care myopathies and neuropathies to determine suitable neuromuscular blocking agents and reversal, preoperative workup of insidious cardiac or pulmonary pathologies in previously healthy patients, and, thorough medication review, particularly of anticoagulation regimens and chronic steroid use. In this article, the authors define the syndrome, synthesize the available scientific evidence, and make pragmatic suggestions regarding the perioperative clinical care of COVID-19 long-haulers.

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    • J Am Med Dir Assoc · Sep 2021

      Prevalence and Predictors of Persistence of COVID-19 Symptoms in Older Adults: A Single-Center Study.

      Symptom persistence weeks after laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance is a relatively common long-term complication of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Little is known about this phenomenon in older adults. The present study aimed at determining the prevalence of persistent symptoms among older COVID-19 survivors and identifying symptom patterns. ⋯ Persistent symptoms are frequently experienced by older adults who have been hospitalized for COVID-19. Follow-up programs should be implemented to monitor and care for long-term COVID-19-related health issues.

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    • Clin. Exp. Immunol. · Aug 2021

      Establishing the prevalence of common tissue-specific autoantibodies following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.

      Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) has been associated with both transient and persistent systemic symptoms that do not appear to be a direct consequence of viral infection. The generation of autoantibodies has been proposed as a mechanism to explain these symptoms. To understand the prevalence of autoantibodies associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we investigated the frequency and specificity of clinically relevant autoantibodies in 84 individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, suffering from COVID-19 of varying severity in both the acute and convalescent setting. ⋯ We demonstrate a higher frequency of autoantibodies in the COVID-19 ITU group compared with non-COVID-19 ITU disease control patients and that autoantibodies were also found in the serum 3-5 months post-COVID-19 infection. Non-COVID patients displayed a diverse pattern of autoantibodies; in contrast, the COVID-19 groups had a more restricted panel of autoantibodies including skin, skeletal muscle and cardiac antibodies. Our results demonstrate that respiratory viral infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the detection of a limited profile of tissue-specific autoantibodies, detectable using routine clinical immunology assays. Further studies are required to determine whether these autoantibodies are specific to SARS-CoV-2 or a phenomenon arising from severe viral infections and to determine the clinical significance of these autoantibodies.

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    • Lancet Reg Health Eur · Jul 2021

      Post-COVID syndrome in non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19: a longitudinal prospective cohort study.

      While the leading symptoms during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are acute and the majority of patients fully recover, a significant fraction of patients now increasingly experience long-term health consequences. However, most data available focus on health-related events after severe infection and hospitalisation. We present a longitudinal, prospective analysis of health consequences in patients who initially presented with no or minor symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Hence, we focus on mild COVID-19 in non-hospitalised patients. ⋯ COVIM:"NaFoUniMedCovid19"(FKZ: 01KX2021).

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    • Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep · Jun 2021


      The Neurological Manifestations of Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global health challenge. This review aims to summarize the incidence, risk factors, possible pathophysiology, and proposed management of neurological manifestations of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) or neuro-PASC based on the published literature. ⋯ The National Institutes of Health has noted that PASC is a multi-organ disorder ranging from mild symptoms to an incapacitating state that can last for weeks or longer following recovery from initial infection with SARS-CoV-2. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed as the culprit for the development of PASC. These include, but are not limited to, direct or indirect invasion of the virus into the brain, immune dysregulation, hormonal disturbances, elevated cytokine levels due to immune reaction leading to chronic inflammation, direct tissue damage to other organs, and persistent low-grade infection. A multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of neuro-PASC will be required to diagnose and address these symptoms. Tailored rehabilitation and novel cognitive therapy protocols are as important as pharmacological treatments to treat neuro-PASC effectively. With recognizing the growing numbers of COVID-19 patients suffering from neuro-PASC, there is an urgent need to identify affected individuals early to provide the most appropriate and efficient treatments. Awareness among the general population and health care professionals about PASC is rising, and more efforts are needed to understand and treat this new emerging challenge. In this review, we summarize the relevant scientific literature about neuro-PASC.

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    • Clin Med (Lond) · Jul 2021

      Post-COVID symptoms reported at asynchronous virtual review and stratified follow-up after COVID-19 pneumonia.

      The COVID-19 pandemic has strained healthcare systems and how best to address post-COVID health needs is uncertain. Here we describe the post-COVID symptoms of 675 patients followed up using a virtual review pathway, stratified by severity of acute COVID infection. ⋯ Many patients continue to have a significant burden of post-COVID symptoms irrespective of severity of initial pneumonia. How best to assess and manage long COVID will be of major importance over the next few years.

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    • Clin Med (Lond) · Jan 2021

      Developing services for long COVID: lessons from a study of wounded healers.

      Persistent symptoms lasting longer than 3 weeks are thought to affect 10-20% of patients following SARS-CoV-2 infection. No formal guidelines exist in the UK for treating patients with long COVID and services are sporadic and variable, although additional funding is promised for their development. ⋯ These individuals see the healthcare system from both professional and patient perspectives, thus represent an important wealth of expertise to inform service design. We present a set of co-designed quality standards, highlighting equity and ease of access, minimal patient care burden, clinical responsibility, a multidisciplinary and evidence-based approach, and patient involvement; and we apply these to propose a potential care pathway model that could be adapted and translated to improve care of patients long COVID.

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    • Clin Med (Lond) · Jan 2021


      Autonomic dysfunction in 'long COVID': rationale, physiology and management strategies.

      The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented morbidity, mortality and global disruption. Following the initial surge of infections, focus shifted to managing the longer-term sequelae of illness in survivors. 'Post-acute COVID' (known colloquially as 'long COVID') is emerging as a prevalent syndrome. ⋯ We suggest that all physicians should be equipped to recognise such cases, appreciate the symptom burden and provide supportive management. We present our rationale for an underlying impaired autonomic physiology post-COVID-19 and suggest means of management.

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    • Ann. Intern. Med. · May 2021


      COVID-19 Symptoms: Longitudinal Evolution and Persistence in Outpatient Settings.

      no abstract available

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    • Nat. Rev. Microbiol. · Jan 2023


      Long COVID: major findings, mechanisms and recommendations.

      Long COVID is an often debilitating illness that occurs in at least 10% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. More than 200 symptoms have been identified with impacts on multiple organ systems. At least 65 million individuals worldwide are estimated to have long COVID, with cases increasing daily. ⋯ In this Review, we explore the current literature and highlight key findings, the overlap with other conditions, the variable onset of symptoms, long COVID in children and the impact of vaccinations. Although these key findings are critical to understanding long COVID, current diagnostic and treatment options are insufficient, and clinical trials must be prioritized that address leading hypotheses. Additionally, to strengthen long COVID research, future studies must account for biases and SARS-CoV-2 testing issues, build on viral-onset research, be inclusive of marginalized populations and meaningfully engage patients throughout the research process.

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    • Nature medicine · Jan 2023

      Machine learning identifies long COVID patterns from electronic health records.

      A machine learning algorithm identifies four reproducible clinical subphenotypes of long COVID from the electronic health records of patients with post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection within 30–180 days of infection; these patterns have implications for the treatment and management of long COVID.

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