Hydroxyethyl starches, such as Hespan, Voluven, Volulyte, Tetrahes and Hestar, have been shown in several large trials to increase the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) and/or the need for renal replacement therapies among critically ill patients, particulalry those suffering sepsis.
Evidence demonstrating harm among fit & healthy surgical patients is however lacking, notably Giles et al could find no increased risk of adverse event among surgical patients in their 2014 meta-analysis. Nonetheless, given the similar lack of demonstrable benefit of HES fluids for this group, avoidance of use in both the ICU and surgical population is prudent.summary
...and 1 more note
Cardiac arrest is rare in pregnancy (1 in 30,000) and resuscitation is founded on the same approach used for the non-pregnant patient, focusing on:
- Calling for help
- A B C (D)
- Good for mother = good for baby
However, unique to maternal resuscitation:
- Airway difficulties are more likely.
- Aortocaval compression dramatically impedes resuscitation – employ left lateral tilt!
- Consider perimortem cesarean section
The rationale for Perimortem Cesarean Section is:
- The presence of baby and gravid uterus severely limits resuscitation of the mother.
- Emergency cesarean section at cardiac arrest is done for the mother’s benefit, not the baby.
- A decision to perform emergency CS must be made within 4 minutes of arrest, and the baby delivered within 5 minutes. (Although there is some evidence of benefit when performed up to 10 minutes after arrest.)
- The only equipment required is a scalpel and an appropriately skilled doctor.