Sedative-hypnotic drug with anaesthetic and anticonvulsant effects.
- Highly lipophilic
- Presented in glass ampoule containing 2.5% powdered form: a. 500 mg thiopentone (anhydrous yellow powder) b. 30 mg sodium carbonate (buffer) c. 0.8 atm of N2 (reduces oxidation)
- made up with H2O to 20 mL
- pH 10.8, pKa 7.6 (ie. ~ pH 11 pKa 7)
- Weak acid
- 60% non-ionised @ pH 7.4 (vs. methohexitone 75%)
- Racemic mixture (l potency > d)
- Demonstrates tautomerism, with water soluble enol form (double bond) in solution → lipid sol keto form at pH 7.4.
- First administered 1934
- Dose - 5 mg/kg (methohexitone 2-3x more potent)
- Absorption - IV, oral, rectal (at higher doses)
- Distribution - Vdcc 0.4 L/kg, Vdss 2.5 L/kg
- fat:blood coeff 11:1 (ie. thio will move into fat until [fat] 11x [blood])
- Protein binding - 75% (prop 98%, methohex 65%)
- Onset within 1 brain-arm circ time (< 60s), Offset 5-15 min
- Metabolism - alpha1 ½ 5 min, alpha2 ½ 1 h, ß ½ 8-11 h, CSHT-8h: 3 h; phase I p450 side-arm oxidation, desulfuration to pentobarbitone (t½ 40h) and ring cleavage to urea and 3-carbon fragments.
- some extrahepatic (renal) metab.
- NB: alpha1 ½ (fast-alpha) is equilibration with/from effect site - alpha2 ½ (slow-alpha) with slow compartments.
- Clearance - 4 mL/kg/min (methohexitone: 3x greater 12 mL/k/m)
- Mech - potentiates GABA inhibition, dec rate of GABA dissociation (like propofol) and at high doses directly activ GABA rec.
- CNS - anaesthetic, anticonvulsant, sedative, ant-analgesic.
- Dec CBF, CMRO2 (max 55%), ICP, IOP.
- EEG (alpha → theta → delta) ⇣ freq, ⇡ ampl → burst suppression → isoelectric.
- Some focal cerebral protection (requires 40 mg/kg !!)
- CVS - Negative inotrope (direct effect and indirect dec SNS outflow), dec CO 20%, vasodilation, dec venous return → ⇣ MAP 20-30%. Compensatory ⇡ HR.
- Histamine release & dysarrythmias rarely occur.
- Respiratory depression (initial ⇡ TV, ⇣ RR)
- Bronchoconstriction & laryngospasm risk (due to ⇣ SNS outflow).
- Renal - ⇣ RBF & GFR 2° ⇣ BP.
- GIT - ⇣ GIT motility, ⇣ HBF, enzyme induction.
- SEs - inhibits neutrophil function; anaphylaxis 1:20,000; porphyria (stims d-ALA synth); inta-arterial injection; thrombophlebitis (> methohexitone 3-4%).
- Crosses placenta; foetal tß½ 11-44h.
- A highly lipid-soluble alkylphenol.
- 2,6 di-isopropyl phenol
- 20 mL ampoules contain:
- 200 mg 1% propofol
- 10% soybean oil (solubiliser)
- 1.2% egg lecithin (emulsifier)
- 2.25% glycerol (make isotonic)
- Sodium hydroxide (buffer)
- pKa 11, pH 7
- 90% non-ionised @ pH 7.4
- weak acid
- stable at room temp, not light sensitive
- 1 mL = 0.1 g fat = 1.1 kcal
- 2 mg/kg induction -> 2-6 mcg/mL
- 3-4 mg/kg in children
- 1 mg/kg load then: 10, 8, 6 mg/kg/h infusion (10m, 10m, cont) after 1 mg/kg loading - aims for blood conc of 3 ug/mL.
- Children: 15 mg/kg/h for 15 min, 13 mg/kg/h for 15 min, 11 mg/kg/h for 30 min then 9 mg/kg/h for 1-2 h, then 9 mg/kg/h for 2-4 h -> 3 ug/mL.
- Sedation 25-100 mcg/kg/min
- Plasma levels:
- major surg 4 mcg/mL (4-8 ug/mL)
- minor surg 3 mcg/mL
- 50% wake @ 1.07 mcg/mL (decrement lvl: 1.2 mcg/mL on TCI)
- 50% orientated @ 0.95 mcg/mL
- Psychomotor perfomance pre-op levels @ 0.3 mcg/mL
- Absorption - IV
- Distribution - Vdcc 0.5 L/kg, Vdss 2-10 L/kg
- Protein binding - 98% albumin
- Onset < 60s, peak 60-90s (slightly slower than thio: peak 30-60s); Offset 5-10 min (faster than thio).
- Metabolism - alpha1∆ 2 min, tß∆ 1h, CSHT-8h: 30 min. Conjugated to glucuronide & sulphate - water sol and renally excreted. 0.3% excreted unchanged.
- Clearance - 30 mL/kg/min.
- Children - larger central vol; longer CSHT (10m@1h & 20m@4h cf. 7m@1h & 10m@4h for adults); slower recovery; but require higher infusion rates and have higher clearance (req. same blood (=effect) conc as adults).
- NB: children have primarily pharmacokinetic differences not pharmacodynamic.
- Women - higher clearance.
- Mech - potentiates GABA inhibition.
- CNS - anaesthetic, anticonvulsant (?), antiemetic, antipruritic, amnesic.
- Not ant-analgesic like thio.
- Inc interthreshold range for temp
- CVS - 25-45% dec MAP, dec CO, dec SVR (dec SNS outflow; direct effect on veins, dec intracellular Ca mobilisation), HR unchanged (resets barorec response).
- Resp - resp depression (apnoea in 30% alone, 100% + narcotic), dec TV, inc RR, bronchodilation (slight), dep laryngeal reflexes.
- Renal - dec RBF, green urine.
- GIT - antiemetic, no hepatic effects.
- Haem - intralipid dec platelet aggregation.
- SEs - anaphylaxis rare; sig hypotension in volume depleted; hallucinations; abuse.
A barbiturate derivative (Brevital™, Brietal™) intravenous anaesthetic agent, no longer available in Australia although still used in other parts of the world.
Preferred for use in electroconvulsive therapy for its pro-seizure effects and comparatively short duration.
Compared to thiopentone
- Made up in 50 mL to 1% solution
- 3x more potent
- 3x clearance (12 mL/kg/min)
- tß½ 3 h (STP 8h)
- Greater ionised proportion
- Less protein binding (65%)
- More rapid recovery: 2-3 min (smaller fat compartment, no active metabolites, ⇡ clearance)
- Higher incidence of pain on injection
- Pro-convulsant/epileptiform EEG (excitatory in 30%)
- PONV (30%)
- Less dec MAP, more inc HR than STP
- More pronounced resp depression